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In the present study, changes in the infectivity and effectiveness of four Glomus mosseae strains of different origin were investigated in calcareous loamy chernozem soils treated with Cd at three levels (0, 50, 100 mg Cd kg −1 ) in a pot experiment. Frequency of infection (F%), arbuscular richness (a%) and shoot dry matter, macro-(N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg) and microelements (Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Mo, Co) and the Cd content of the host plants were compared to determine whether there was any variability in infectivity and effectiveness between G. mosseae strains of different origin. Functional diversity was found in the infectivity and effectiveness of the studied G. mosseae strains. In Cd-treated soil, AMF inoculation was beneficial to the plant growth, P uptake and shoot Cd content of the host. However, the higher uptake of other macro- and microelements was noted for non-mycorrhizal plants compared to mycorrhizal plants. The lower shoot content of some elements did not cause nutrient deficiency in mycorrhizal plants. The present results support the hypothesis that in polluted soils, the development of mycorrhizal symbiosis has the potential for AMF to protect their hosts against Cd toxicity rather than to improve nutrient uptake.

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The spores of 6 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) were collected, described and illustrated in three different habitats of semiarid open sandy grasslands in Hungary (Nagykáta, Domonyvölgy, Fülöpháza). Glomus constrictum, G. corymbiforme, G. microcarpum, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora dipurpurescens, and S. persica are reported firstly from Hungary.

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The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of metal non-adapted arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) application on the metal uptake of the host plant in a pot experiment. The soil samples originated from a calcareous chernozem soil treated with Cd, Ni and Zn with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as the test plant. Changes in the parameters of mycorrhizal root colonization and in the metal uptake of the host as affected by metal type, metal rate and mycorrhizal treatments were investigated. efficient mycorrhizal symbiosis was found to develop; the heavy metal uptake of the plants decreased in the presence of this symbiosis with metal non-adapted AMF.

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Abstract

This study presents the examination of the leadership in a multi-national company in Debrecen, in which we examine the relationship between lean and leadership. We identified the competitiveness within a kaizen implementation of the company's moderators with the help of a questionnaire. With help of the identified management competencies we determine the leadership style, which is necessary for the operation of a successful and effective lean management.

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Abstract

The ‘best interests of the child’ is a unique and broad principle of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and is frequently referred to by international courts. The European Court of Human Rights is nor an exception. This article examines which aspect(s) of the ‘best interests’ concept appears in the immigration case law of the Court and how it can provide protection for migrant children in precarious situations.

Open access

Egy felsőoktatási e-learning tananyagfejlesztés értékelése

Evaluation of an E-Learning Curriculum in Higher Education

Educatio
Authors:
Judit T. Kárász
,
Olivér Nagybányai-Nagy
,
Nándor Takács
, and
Szabolcs Takács

A COVID–19 miatt bevezetett távolléti/hibrid oktatás első három félévének során tananyagfejlesztést végeztünk a Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem Pszichológiai Intézetében a matematikai statisztika tárgy keretei között. A pszichológus alap- és mesterképzés hallgatói esetében az oktatási keretrendszer folyamatos naplózása lehetővé tette, hogy összesített statisztikák segítségével megfigyeléseket tegyünk. Az időszak végén a mesterképzéses hallgatóktól Q-módszertan (Stephenson 1953) szerinti preferenciaértékelést is kértünk, hogy az általuk alkalmazott e-learning stratégiákról képet alkothassunk. Ennek segítségével azonosítani tudtunk három eltérő tanulási stratégiát (önálló tanulás, gyakorlatorientált tanulás erős oktatói támogatással, elméletorientált tanulás), melyek a felkínált tartalmakat eltérő módon használták ki. Ez indokolja, hogy ezen anyagok elérését továbbra is biztosítsuk a hallgatók számára.

Open access

Oktatási reform hatékonyságának vizsgálata – Tantárgyak nehézségi elemzése IRT-modell segítségével programtervező informatikus hallgatók körében

The effectiveness of education reform – Applying the Rasch model to analyse computer science students' dropout

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Rita Takács
,
Judit T. Kárász
,
Szabolcs Takács
,
Zoltán Horváth
, and
Attila Oláh

The high dropout rates (generally 30–40%) in higher education is causing serious problems. Computer science education is particularly affected, with the first two semesters of undergraduate education being the most critical period in most countries. The institutes may lose 60% of their students. The aim of our study is to analyse how effective the educational reform was: how many students could we prevent from dropping out since 2016.

A sample of academic performance of computer science students was analyzed between 2010 and 2017 using IRT model analysis. The study includes data from 3,673 university students.

According to our results, after the educational reform, most subjects became more achievable and students with lower abilities also tried to take the exams. Mathematics-related subjects became achievable at a lower level of difficulty, and lower ability students also tried to take the exams, and did not see the attempt as a potential failure.

Programming/professional subjects became more difficult, and they were differentiating students at a higher level than mathematic related subjects. Educational reform to support students' academic progress has made it possible to improve students' academic performance. We conclude that intervention programs are worthwhile to consider in order to retain students.

Open access

Today, companies have to face new challanges because of the globalization, new technologies, globalization of markets and increasing competition. In this accelerated world, it is essential that the companies adapt to the market, which is only available through the necessary information. The importance of market research is undoubted. In our study we would like to prove that in case of a beginner company — in this case a confectionery — it is important to perform a market research like for a company in any other segment. To perform it, the qualitative market research methods were used. Our questionnaire examines several aspects in order to provide an indication of the company’s founding.

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Epipactis albensis Nováková et Rydlo (Orchidaceae), a species previously undocumented in the flora of Ukraine, was found in three localities in this country (in vicinity of Chetfalva, Fanchykovo and Drotyntsi, Zakarpattia district) in 2012. The species (originally described from the Czech Republic) recently has only been known to exist in seven Central European countries. The three Ukrainian populations described here stretch within the floodplain of river Tisza. Based on measurements in 14 localities in Hungary, Ukraine and Romania the species has a considerably wide soil reaction tolerance (from 3.6 to 7.2 pHKCl). The fruit set of this strictly autogamous species is reasonably high (78%). The mean±SD thousand seed weight of the species was 0.0030±0.0005 grams, therefore E. albenis is classified into the hypermeichor seed-weight class. Recent discoveries of the species in Romania and Ukraine raise the possibility of its occurrence in further European countries.

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Cronbach-alfa: vele vagy nélküle?

Cronbach’s alfa: with or without it?

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Judit T. Kárász
,
Olivér Nagybányai Nagy
,
Krisztián Széll
, and
Szabolcs Takács

Háttér és célkitűzések

Tanulmányunkban arra vállalkozunk, hogy egy olyan eljárást mutassunk be, melynek segítségével megalapozottabban használható az eddig is széles körben alkalmazott Cronbach-alfa mutató.

Módszer

Elemzésünkben egy olyan, egyszerűen elkészíthető szimulációs eljárás alkalmazását javasoljuk, melynek segítségével az adatainkhoz igazodva egy, az adott helyzetben elvárt együttes konzisztenciaszint (át-lagos korrelációs szint) eléréséhez szükséges Cronbach-alfa viszonyítási pontot adhatunk.

Eredmények

Elemzésünk ugyanis rámutat arra, hogy nemcsak a kérdőívben használt itemek számától, hanem a kérdőívben alkalmazott Likert-skála értékeinek számától is függővé kellene tenni a Cronbach-alfa mutató viszonyítási pontját. Szintén eredménye az elemzésünknek, hogy az alkalmazott formulával nem a hagyományosan meghatározott 0,7-es értéket kapjuk, hanem mind a Likert-skálától, mind pedig az itemek számától, illetve az elvárt, itemek közötti kapcsolati erősségtől függővé lehet tenni az elvárt Cronbach-alfa értéket.

Következtetések

A javasolt algoritmus segítségével a Cronbach-alfa mutatónak egy olyan alkalmazását lehet megvalósítani, mely alkalmas arra, hogy a kérdőívünkhöz (a válaszadási Likert-skálához) igazodva, illetve a skála itemszáma alapján referenciapontot adhassunk e megbízhatósági mutatóhoz.

Background and purpose

In our study, we undertake to present a procedure that allows a more well-founded use of the Cronbach’s alpha index, which has been widely used so far.

Method

In our analysis, we propose the use of a simple simulation procedure, which can be used in a given situation to provide a Cronbach’s alpha reference point to achieve the expected overall consistency level (average correlation level).

Results

This is because our analysis points out that the Cronbach’s alpha index should be made dependent not only on the number of items, but also on the number of Likert scale values used in the questionnaire. It is also the result of our analysis that the applied formula does not give the traditionally determined value of 0.7, but the expected Cronbach’s alpha value dependent on both the Likert scale and the number of items, as well as the expected relationship strength between items.

Conclusion

With the help of the proposed algorithm, an application of the Cronbach’s alpha index can be implemented, which is suitable to add a reference point to this reliability index based on our questionnaire (the answer Likert scale) and the number of items on the scale.

Open access