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  • Author or Editor: T. Takeuchi x
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Abstract  

The proceeding of the IAEA symposium held in 1978 on nuclear activation techniques in the life sciences are reviewed. A total of 56 papers are reviewed on methodology, analytical quality control, comparisons between neutron activation analysis and other methods, and applications of activation analysis in biology and medicine (including in-vivo activation analysis) and in public and environmental health. The materials analysed in the papers are adjusted in connection with the elements determined and the purposes of the study. Those elements are tabulated together with the analytical methods used for the element determination. The standard reference materials analysed for the check of the reliability of analysis are also arranged.

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Abstract  

Several dead time correction methods were compared experimentally with the exact correction method and their limits were discussed. These correction methods were applied to neutron activation analysis of a biological sample. A special electronic circuit and an additional counting equipment were used to obtain the fractional dead time with a suficiently high frequency.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to 61 ivory samples of which origin countries are known. 12 elements such as Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, Sr and Zn, were determined in all samples. The factor score of each sample was calculated for each factor by making use of principal component analysis in order to determine their origins. The results were compared with those by stable isotope analysis (13C and15N).

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to 80 samples from various African countries and 81 samples from the Kruger National Park in the Republic of South Africa. Twelve elements such as Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, Sr, and Zn, were determined in all samples. The factor scores of each sample were calculated from those elemental concentrations for the first and second factors to clarify the differences of samples from various African countries with those from Kruger Park. The results were compared with those by stable isotope analysis (13C and15N).

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Abstract  

The volatilization losses of mercury before, during and after neutron irradiation were studied. To minimize the losses, respectively, were added to the standards, thiourea, L-cysteine, thioacetamide and ammonium sulfide. It was possible to minimize the losses by preserving the standard at −20°C after irradiation. No loss was seen in the biological materials after irradiation.

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Abstract  

Human hair collected from the mercury, arsenic and cadmium polluted areas has been analysed by instrumental neutron activation method. The concentrations of 27 elements were compared with those of normal Japanese. Correlation coefficients of logarithmic concentrations between the elements were calculated and their significance levels were determined. Factor contribution and factor loadings of the elements were calculated for each factor by making use of principal component analysis. The factor score of each sample was also calculated for each factor to examine the effects of the contamination by heavy metals on individuals.

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Abstract  

The detection of tritium and14C-ethylene on the surface of nickel sheet was carried out by means of autoradiography. Two autoradiographical methods were used, the ordinary stripping-film method and the electron-microscope autoradiographical method. The ordinary autoradiographs indicated that14C-ethylene accumulates at scratches on the surface of the sheet; however, tritium accumulates at grain boundaries and scratches. Electron-microscope autoradiographs indicated that tritium accumulates on the step-edges of slip band of nickel.

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Abstract  

To investigate the present situation of inhabitants living in the cadmium polluted area of Toyama Prefecture of Japan, 95 hair samples were analyzed by neutron activation method. The median and the geometric standard deviation were determined from a cumulative frequency distribution curve of the elemental concentrations for each of 3 groups: male, female without perm and female with perm which were divided furthermore by two age ranges: 20 age<50 and 50 age. These concentrations were compared with those in some organs and urine reported.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of trace impurity elements in a silicon single crystal. Impurity concentrations in polysilicon melt were compared with those in a single crystal. Impurity concentrations in artificial quartz were also compared with those in natural quartz. Segregation coefficients in Au, Ir and Sb were determined at different concentrations. The segregation coefficient of an element in a silicon single crystal is constant over a critical concentration, it becomes larger gradually under the critical one, and at last it becomes larger than 1.

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Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of trace impurity elements in a silicon ingot. Detection limits of 36 elements were calculated semi — empirically and compared with minimum concentrations detected in a silicon single crystal. The sources of the impurities were estimated from element concentrations detected in polycrystalline silicon and a quartz crucible. Segregation coefficients were determined from the concentration curves in a single crystal and discussed by comparing with reported values.

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