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The absorption of three amino acids (leucine, alanine and lysine) from the washed, closed rumen was studied in a short-term (75 min) experiment in situ. The concentration of leucine and alanine did not change in the rumen during the experiment, while that of lysine continuously decreased, and 40% of the total lysine placed in the rumen was absorbed during the experimental period. The rate of absorption decreased in proportion to the fall of amino acid concentration.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: T. Veresegyházy, Hedvig Fébel, G. Nagy, and Ágnes Rimanóczy

The absorption of ethanol from the rumen was studied in three British Milk sheep equipped with a rumen cannula. After removal of the rumen content and washing the forestomachs several times the reticulo-omasal orifice was closed and through the cannula 20 or 60 ml ethanol and 2 ml Cr-EDTA were infused in physiological saline. The entire fluid volume was 3000 ml. At the start of the experiment (0 min) and subsequently in the 5th, 15th, 30th, 45th, 60th and 75th minutes samples were taken from the fluid present in the forestomachs. During the 75-min experiment the amount of ethanol gradually decreased in the rumen. The rate of disappearance varied according to concentration. The graph depicting the change of ruminal ethanol concentration shows a curve typical of passive transport. The equation describing the disappearance of ethanol was y = -0.0474x2 + 5.6544x + 10.869 after the administration of 20 ml ethanol, and y = -0.1377x2 + 19.541x - 24.606 after the infusion of 60 ml ethanol. It was established that ethanol was absorbed through the rumen wall by a passive transport process.

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This study was designed to determine the effects of calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (CS), hydroxyethylsoyamide (HESA), butylsoyamide (BSA) and soybean oil (SO) on degradation of crude protein and fibre in vitro, and on the blood plasma lipid parameters in vivo. Five mature wethers (body weight 75 kg) were fed five diets in a 5 × 5 Latin square experiment. The control diet consisted of 50% meadow hay and 50% concentrate with no added fat. The control diet was supplemented with CS, HESA, BSA, or SO. Fat was added at 3.5% of dietary dry matter (DM). The final ether extract content of the ration was near 6%. Each period lasted 20 days. Fat supplements, except HESA, consistently decreased the in vitro DM disappearance of soybean meal as compared to control. In contrast to the effect of other treatments, crude protein degradation was greatest in the test tubes with inocula obtained from sheep fed diet with HESA. Fat supplements equally inhibited the DM and fibre breakdown of alfalfa pellet. CS and HESA seemed to be less detrimental to in vitro fermentation of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than BSA and SO. All fat supplements increased blood plasma triglyceride, cholesterol and total lipid content. Plasma concentration of cholesterol and total lipid was highest with SO. The inclusion of CS in the diet increased 16:0, while all fat supplements increased plasma 18:0 and decreased 16:1 and 18:1 fatty acid content. Plasma 18:2n-6 was not changed by feeding CS and SO. However, compared to the control diet, 18:2n-6 increased with 12 and 41% in plasma fatty acids when sheep were fed HESA and BSA, respectively. The results showed that plasma concentration of linoleic acid was enhanced more when the amide was synthesised from butylamine than when from ethanolamine.

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The aim of this study was to examine the changes of the daily energy amount of lactose, protein and fat throughout the lactations, and compare them to each other. A total of 309 Israeli Holstein-Friesian cows from one kibbutz were investigated in three lactations, and information was given for a period of five years from 1996 to the end of 2000. The distribution of milk components and milk yield during lactation, and changes of the absolute and relative energy amount in the different milk components were calculated and evaluated. The results showed changes in the energy content of milk and its different components throughout the lactation. Each component (fat, lactose and protein) is dominant in different periods during the lactation. The energy amount from fat reaches a peak first, between days 40 and 50. Lactose has a peak at about day 66 of lactation, and protein reaches the peak last, approximately at day 104 of lactation. It seems that this peak sequence is constant and it is considered to be physiological. It might be suggested that there is a regulation governing the secretion of the different components at different times, and only one component is dominant in a given period. Each component exerts negative and positive influences on the secretion of the other components, which interact with each other and are not fully independent.

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