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  • Author or Editor: T. Vyhnánek x
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The variability of microsatellite markers of 16 genotypes of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42, BBAARR) was studied. Five varieties from Poland (Gutek, Kitaro, Lamberto, Presto and Tornado), three from Germany (Lupus, Ticino and Triamant), one from Russia (Valentin-90) and seven translocation forms derived from cv. Presto (donors of good bread-making quality) were analysed. SSR markers localised on chromosomes of the A, B, D and R genomes were chosen from literature for analysis. Based on 48 SSR markers (27 wheat and 21 rye SSR markers) a dendrogram was calculated, which highly significantly differentiated the Valentine-90 genotype from all the other 15 genotypes split into three sub-clusters. The first one includes the cv. Gutek, Tornado, Presto and translocation forms of cv. Presto. The second sub-cluster consists of the cv. Kitaro, Lamberto, Ticino and Triamant. The third sub-cluster cluster consists of the cv. Lupus only. The diversity index (DI), the probabilities of identity (PI) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) of SSR markers were calculated. We detected 184 alleles from 48 markers with an average of 3.83 alleles per locus (ranging from 1 to 9 alleles per locus). The average polymorphic information content was 0.48 ranging between 0.00 and 0.85.

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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the allelic composition of Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci that comprise the high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits in 15 triticale genotypes. The Glu-A1b allele was detected most frequently (86.7%) at the Glu-A1 locus; the Glu-A1a and Glu-A1c alleles were only found, respectively, in the ‘Pawo’ and ‘Leontino’ varieties. Five allelic combinations were detected at Glu-B1 [Glu-B1-1a+2o (encoding Bx7+By8*), Glu-B1-1a+2s (Bx7+By18*), Glu-B1-1a+2z (Bx7+By20*), Glu-B1-1b+2a (Bx7*+By8) and Glu-B1-1b+2o (Bx7*+By8*)]. The Glu-D1d allele (HMW subunits 5+10) was observed in breeding lines that carried translocated segments of wheat chromosome 1D. Dough mixing results indicated the Glu-D1d allele provided slight improvements in bread-making quality. Three-year results with Glu-B1b+2o/2a encoding subunits Bx7*+By8/ By8* exhibited positive affects in bread-making quality. These subunits were detected in varieties ‘Mungis’ and ‘Pawo’.

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The objectives of the study were to test diversity among winter barley breeding lines exhibiting various sensitivity to FHB and to find RAPD markers and AFLP markers that will distinguish between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes. A test of a set of winter barley genotypes artificially infected in field trials by fusaria was carried out. Based on the results from field and laboratory evaluation and deoxynivalenol (DON) content assessment, barley genotypes with different responses to FHB were selected. The genotypes were hybridized and doubled haploid (DH) lines were derived in F1 generation using the in vitro androgenesis method. Initial parental components and derived DH lines were tested for FHB infection and DON content. A set of parental genotypes of winter barley was tested with 80 RAPD markers. Based on analyses of 80 RAPD primers in a set of parental genotypes of winter barley, the primer H15 was selected that provides specific product of 650-bp size for moderately resistant winter barley genotypes. In consecutive detection, this specific product was found in 4 DH lines. During the study, some DH lines were selected that exhibited improved resistance to Fusarium infection. A low infection level and low DON content were found in the winter barley line DH 610 from the combination of Br2611m × Duet. The AFLP technique was used to analyze parental genotypes of winter barley as well as 7 selected DH lines of winter barley. The detected markers can be further evaluated and employed to select breeding materials.

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