As a new form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Zuojin pill extract is made containing Coptidis rhizoma (the rhizome of Coptis chinesis Franch. [Ranunculaceae]) and Euodiae fructus (the unripe fruit of Euodia rutaecarpa [Juss.] Benth. [Rutaceae]) at the ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and has been most widely used in TCM to treat gastro-intestinal disorders. However, the quality control is insufficient. For establishing an analysis method for the effective quality control of Zuojin pill extract, the active components of three protoberberine alkaloids (coptisine, palmatine, berberine, components from C. rhizoma) and two indolequinoline alkaloids (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, components from E. fructus) in Zuojin pill extract were determined simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic separations were performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm). Elution was carried out at 25°C under isocratic conditions by using 25 mmol L−1 KH2PO4-25 mmol L−1 SDS-acetonitrile (1:1:2, v/v/v, adjusted pH to 3.0 using phosphoric acid) as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.5 mL min−1. Detection wavelength was set at 264 nm. Good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficient higher than 0.999 for all the analytes over the investigated concentration ranges. Three batches of Zuojin pill extract were successfully analyzed. The average percentages of coptisine, palmatine, berberine, evodiamine, and rutaecarpine in Zuojin pill extract were 5.35%, 3.92%, 16.64%, 0.03%, and 0.03%, respectively. Consequently, these protoberberine and indolequinoline alkaloids could be identified and determined easily by the established high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method which can be used to evaluate and control the quality of Zuojin pill extract.
Bibliographic databases are frequently used and analysed for the purpose of assessing the capacity and performance of individual researchers or entire research systems. Many of the advantages and disadvantages are the subject of continued discussion in the relevant literature, although only rarely with respect to the regional dimension of scientific publication activity. The importance of the regional dimension of science is reflected in many theoretical concepts, ranging from innovation system theories to territorial cluster concepts and learning regions. This article makes use of the extensive information found in bibliographic data and assesses the reliability of this information as a proxy indicator for the spatial dimension of scientific collaboration in emerging economies. This is undertaken using the example of the emerging field of biotechnology in China from 2000 onwards. Two data sets have been prepared: (1) the frequently used ISI Web of Knowledge database (SCI-Expanded) and (2) the domestic Chinese Chongqing VIP database. Both data sources were analysed using a variety of bibliometric and network scientific methods. The structural and topological similarity of networks, built from co-authorship data, is apparent between the two databases. At an abstract level, general network forces are present, resulting in similar network sizes, clustering, or assortativity. However, introducing additional complexity through regional subdivision reveals many differences between the two data sources that must be accounted for in the analytic design of future scientometric research in dynamic spaces.
Authors:X. X. Liu, L. Wang, J. Yang, T. T. Zhang, X. D. Deng, and Q. Wang
Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic methods with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) have been established and validated for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of eight steroidal saponins in ten batches of Gongxuening capsule (GXN), a widely commercially available traditional Chinese preparation. The optimum chromatographic conditions entailed use of a Kromasil C18 column with acetonitrile-water (30:70 to 62:38, υ/υ) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD was 102°C and the nebulizing gas flow rate was 2.8 L min−1. Separation was successfully achieved within 25 min. LC-ESI-MSn was used for unequivocal identification of the constituents of the samples by comparison with reference compounds. The assay was fully validated for precision, repeatability, accuracy, and stability, then successfully applied to quantification of the eight compounds in samples. The method could be effective for evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of GXN.
Authors:L. Liu, T. Zhao, X. M. Cheng, C. H. Wang, and Z. T. Wang
Harmaline and harmine accounted for more than 70% in composition in extracts of P. harmala. More attention, however, should be paid to the other alkaloids which would be favorable or unfavorable to the efficacy and safety of the products. It was necessary to determine these trace alkaloids in the extracts; thereafter, most of them have been characterized. Diglycoside vasicine, vasicine, vasicinone, harmalol, harmol, tetrahydroharmine, 8-hydroxy-harmine, ruine, harmaline, and harmine were separated and identified with reference substances and characteristic MS spectra in extracts by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three trace alkaloids, vasicine, harmalol, and harmol were determined using the developed chromatographic separation method subsequently. The average contents of vasicine, harmalol, and harmol in extracts of ten batches were 2.53 ± 0.73, 0.54 ± 0.19, and 0.077 ± 0.03%, respectively. The total content of the three alkaloids was 3.23 ± 0.90% (from 1.81 to 4.48%). For rough estimation of all the relative alkaloids except of harmaline and harmine, the average total areas of all peaks in extracts varied from 4.35 to 26.64% detected at 220, 254, 265, 280, and 380 nm, respectively. The results indicated that area normalization method was powerless for the quality evaluation for traditional herb medicine consisting of numerous compounds with highly differential features. It might be concluded that LC-MS or HPLC could be utilized as a qualitative and quantitative analytical method for quality control of the extracts from seeds of P. harmala L.
Effects of nano-metal powders (aluminum and nickel) addition on the thermooxidative degradation of binder PEG in air atmosphere
from 20 to 350°C were studied by TG/DTA and in-situ FTIR. TG/DTA results showed that the addition of nano-Al slowed down the
degradation process of PEG in the early period but accelerated the process in the late period; the addition of nano-Ni made
the PEG degradation process begin as soon as melted. The in-situ FTIR results showed that nano-Ni promoted the thermooxidative
degradation of PEG in air, and made the degradation process of PEG complete much earlier.
Authors:Y. Masuda, Y. Seto, X. Wang, Y. Yukawa, and T. Arii
Thermal and structural changes of lanthanum hexacyanocobaltate(III) pentahydrate, La[Co(CN)6]⋅5H2O were investigated by means of thermal analysis, visible electronic spectra, IR, powder X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and TG-MS.
The dehydration of La[Co(CN)6]⋅5H2O proceeded reversibly through three steps and steps corresponded to the losses of H2O, 3H2O and H2O, and the enthalpy changes for these steps were 51.3, 211.0 and 38.7 kJ mol−1, respectively.
After the dehydration, the colour of the anhydride changed from white to blue around 290C and an abrupt mass loss occurred
at 350C. The colour change seems to be attributable to the change of coordination geometry around the Co ions from an octahedral
structure to a tetrahedral one. LnCoO3 was obtained as a final product by heating the sample to 1000C.
In order to identify the kinetic process of self-heating in DSC experiment for Ti+3Al→TiAl3 reaction, two approaches, linear-fitting approach developed from Semenov"s theory of spontaneous ignition and variation of
Friedman method, were carried out with cylindrical Ti-75 at% Al samples. Following these approaches, two identical activation
energies are obtained as 16915 kJ mol-1 and 1705 kJ mol-1, respectively. Compared with the activation energies of reactions and interdiffusions between Ti and Al, the possible rate-controlling
process of self-heating in DSC experiment for Ti+3Al→TiAl3 reaction is the interdiffusion between Ti and Al through TiAl3-layer.
Authors:L. Li, X. Wang, J. Shen, L. Zhou, and T. Zhang
Adsorption microcalorimetry has been employed to study the interaction of ethylene with the reduced and oxidized Pt-Ag/SiO2catalysts with different Ag contents to elucidate the modified effect of Ag towards the hydrocarbon processing on platinum
catalysts. In addition, microcalorimetric adsorption of H2, O2, CO and FTIR of CO adsorption were conducted to investigate the influence of Ag on the surface structure of Pt catalyst.
It is found from the microcalorimetric results of H2and O2adsorption that the addition of Ag to Pt/SiO2leads to the enrichment of Ag on the catalyst surface which decreases the size of Pt surface ensembles of Pt-Ag/SiO2catalysts. The microcalorimetry and FTIR of CO adsorption indicates that there still exist sites for linear and bridged CO
adsorption on the surface of platinum catalysts simultaneously although Ag was incorporated into Pt/SiO2. The ethylene microcalorimetric results show that the decrease of ensemble size of Pt surface sites suppresses the formation
of dissociative species (ethylidyne) upon the chemisorption of C2H4on Pt-Ag/SiO2. The differential heat vs. uptake plots for C2H4adsorption on the oxygen-preadsorbed Pt/SiO2and Pt-Ag/SiO2catalysts suggest that the incorporation of Ag to Pt/SiO2could decrease the ability for the oxidation of C2H4.
A TiO2/monazite photocatalyst was prepared by embedding TiO2 nanoparticles into a monazite substrate surface. TiCl4 hydrolysis/citric acid chelating procedure under acidic conditions were used to synthesize the nanophase TiO2 particles. The anatase TiO2/monazite photocatalyst surface area, morphology, crystalline and elemental concentrations were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller
(BET) method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission
spectrometry (ICP-AES). Monazite contains a large amount of Ce-, La-, Nd- and Th-PO4 compounds; it has been known as a natural mineral material with minor radioactivity. TiO2-CeO2 composite is a kind of radiation sensitive photocatalyst in which the radiations of thorium nuclides give energy to trigger
TiO2 and cerium ions which play an energy absorber with charge separator. The result showed that methylene blue and phenol were
spontaneously photocatalytic decomposed by TiO2/monazite composite even in a dark environment. A synergistic effect was also examined with applied exterior UV or 60Co irradiation. A hybrid mechanism is proposed; according by the radioluminescence (RL) from excited Ce ion by γ-radiation
soliciting CeO2/TiO2 heterojunction (HJ). This seems to be a possible mechanism to explain this self-activated photo-catalytic behavior.
Authors:J. Wang, M. Takahashi, T. Kitazawa, and M. Takeda
155Gd Mössbauer spectra of some Gd(III)-b-diketonato complexes are reported. All of their 155Gd Mössbauer isomer shift (d) values fall in a narrow range of +0.55-+0.65 mm.s-1, and are between those of GdF3 and the cubic form of Gd2O3. This indicates that their Gd-O bonds have small covalent character. The value for quadrupole coupling constant (e2qQ) spread out from 1.67 to 7.56 mm.s-1 and reflects the difference well in symmetry of the coordination polyhedron around Gd(III) ions for those Gd(III)-b-diketonato complexes.