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  • Author or Editor: T. Watanabe x
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Biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) modulates various aspects of behaviors such as aggressive behavior and circadian behavior in the cricket. In our previous report, in order to elucidate the molecular basis of the cricket 5-HT system, we identified three genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis, as well as four 5-HT receptor genes (5-HT 1A, 5-HT 1B, 5-HT , and 5-HT 7) expressed in the brain of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer [7]. In the present study, we identified Gryllus 5-HT gene, an additional 5-HT receptor gene expressed in the cricket brain, and examined its tissue-specific distribution and embryonic stagedependent expression. Gryllus 5-HT gene was ubiquitously expressed in the all examined adult tissues, and was expressed during early embryonic development, as well as during later stages. This study suggests functional differences between two 5-HT2 receptors in the cricket.

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The ant, Formica japonica, is polyphagous and workers hunt other insects as foods. In this study, interspecific aggression was examined in the workers and queens. Behavior experiments demonstrated that interspecific aggressiveness was significantly higher in workers than queens. Workers showed predatory aggressive behavior towards crickets, on the other hand, queens elicited threat behavior but they didn’t attack crickets. In order to investigate neuronal mechanisms underlying regulation of aggressive motivation, the role of biogenic amine in the brain in evoking aggressive behavior was examined by measuring biogenic amine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ECD). No significant difference in the octopamine (OA) level was found between workers and queens, but the level of N-acetyloctopamine (NacOA) in the brain of queens was significantly higher than that of workers. This study suggests that OAergic system in the brain must involve in controlling aggressive motivation in the ants.

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Abstract  

DSC was used for heat capacity measurements of pure RuO2 in the temperature range from 300 to 1170 K of solid solutions corresponding to the compositions of (Ti1−x Rux )O2 (x ≤0.15 and x ≥0.85) and in the temperature range from 300 to 1550 K of pure TiO2. The analysis of experimental data obtained within 2% of accuracy has shown that the characteristic temperatures representing the harmonic lattice vibrations do not strongly depend on the chemical composition x . It was demonstrated that non-harmonic heat capacity is strongly correlated to x. The existence of additional excess heat capacity was observed with the mixed oxide solid solution samples of low Ru content and explained by the defect formation model.

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Aggressive behavior of white-eye mutant crickets was investigated and compared with that of wild-type crickets. In the dark, wild-type pairs performed long-lasting fights with significantly higher aggressive levels compared to those in the light. In contrast, fights between two white-eye mutants were not significantly different with those between two wild-type crickets both in duration and the aggressive levels. Ethograms of aggressive behavior showed that the mutants could show typical sequentially escalating fight with the same behavioral categories as the wild-type crickets. These results indicate that the white-eye mutants are able to express normal aggressive behavior.

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Abstract  

The preparation of rutile type solid solutions in (TiO2)x -(RuO2)1−x system in the 0≤x ≤0.7 concentration range is described. The single phase solid solutions are formed by controlled nanocrystallization of amorphous gels prepared by the sol-gel method. The kinetics of this crystallization process has been analyzed. It was found that the crystallization does not correspond to the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model and it can be described by the two-parameter Šestk-Berggren kinetic model.

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Pyridine-treated phthalocyanineiron (II) (FePc) was synthesized in a NaY-zeolite supercage. Mössbauer spectra indicated the presence of pyridine-inactive FePc without any change of Mössbauer parameters. The relative yield of the inactive complex was not simply dependent on the amount of iron doped and the temperature during reduction for preparation. Spin-spin interaction may have broadened the ESR signal at g=6 for FePc in zeolite, suggesting that the FePc molecules are located close together in zeolite. It is postulated that two types of FePc in zeolite particle were formed, in accordance with the reactivity of FePc to pyridine adduct formation.

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Phthalocyanineiron(II) (FePc) and phthalocyaninato[(2-)bispyridine]iron(II) (FePc(py)2) synthesized in supercage of NaY, KY and RbY zeolite have been characterized by Mössbauer and ESR spectroscopy. The yield of formation of the pyridine adduct depends on the ionic radius of the alkali ions introduced into the supercage, but not on the number of iron ions trapped in the cages, suggesting that free space in the supercage was the most important factor for the formation of the FePc-py-adducts.

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The151Eu Mössbauer spectra were measured of surface-oxidized europium/II/ sulfate with the γ-ray transmission- and conversion electron technique. The comparison of such spectra demonstrated that the change in the oxidation state of trace amounts of europium induced by surface reactions could be characterized by the conversion electron Mössbauer technique. The photochemical reduction of europium/III/ oxalate to a Eu/II/species after irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp was demonstrated by means of this technique as well as ESR.

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This work is devoted to enhance gamma-ray radiolysis of CO2 with the assistance of coexisting metal materials. It is found that lower energy electrons which are generated through interactions of γ-photons with the coexisting metal materials and ejected to CO2 gas actually enhance decomposition of CO2 to produce CO. The increment of CO production agrees well with the increment of the deposited energy in CO2, given by the lower energy electrons emitted from the materials, which is calculated by a numerical simulations code MCNP. It is also suggested that the volumetric decomposition of CO2 dominates the decomposition at the material’s surface.

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The miscibility of crystalline syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS)/non-crystalline atactic polystyrene (APS) blend was estimated by the crystallization dynamics method, which evaluated the nucleation rate, the crystal growth rate and the surface free energy parameter. The melting temperature depression suggested that SPS/APS blends were the miscible system but not in molecular level. The relationship between the blend content and the chemical potential difference evaluated at a constant crystal growth rate showed a good linear relationship. These facts suggested that SPS/APS blends contained the concentration fluctuation with the size between few nm to less than 80 nm.

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