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  • Author or Editor: T. Yang x
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Abstract  

Let G be a bounded locally compact Vilenkin group. We study the boundedness of potential operators and the maximal operators associated with them in the weighted Herz space, the weighted Hardy space and the weighted Herz-type Hardy space over G. We also discuss the boundedness of these operators on the weighted weak Lebesgue space and the weighted weak Herz space whose sharpness are also discussed.

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Abstract  

Monochromatic MeV-energy neutron source for secondary reaction was developed utilizing tritium embedded titanium (Ti-3H) thin film via 3H(p,n)3He reaction. We have measured the neutron energies and the energy spread by resonance reactions of 12C(n,tot) and 28Si(n,tot). The available energy was within the range from 0.6 to 2.6 MeV. Energy spread was 1.6% at energy of 2.077 MeV. The flux in the beam direction was determined to be 3.76·107 n/s/sr by irradiating 197Au by about 2 MeV neutrons. This source was shown to be useful for measurements of nuclear data by measuring the total cross sections of neutrons on Fe and comparing these data to the data of ENDF-6.

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Thermal degradation of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and its mixtures with alumina, mullite and silica was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetry in the temperature range of 323 to 1273 K. The analysis of the data was carried out using a three-dimensional diffusion model. Results showed that the kinetic parameters (activation energy and pre-exponential factor) of the PVB degradation are different for polymer alone, and ceramic/polymer composites. The overall weighted mean apparent activation energy showed an increasing reactivity in the order of PVB<alumina+PVB<mullite+PVB<silica+PVB. This shows that the acidic and basic surface characteristics of the ceramics promote the thermal degradation of PVB and, the more acidic silica affects the degradation more than mullite and alumina. The effect of pellet compression pressure in the range of 4000 to 8000 psig is also investigated.

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A synthetic autopolyploid was developed from diploid Aegilops tauschii, D genome progenitor of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). The tetraploid Ae. tauschii displayed a markedly larger organ size than the diploid donor. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA marker analysis revealed that there is no clear variation at either the chromosomal or DNA level between the diploid and tetraploid plants. We analyzed the variation in cytosine methylation patterns between the diploid and tetraploid plants by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and detected 228 and 232 methylated sites in diploid and tetraploid plants, respectively. Statistical comparison indicated that the tetraploid Ae. tauschii genotype displayed no significant difference in polymorphic methylation level compared to the diploid ones. Twenty-two different genomic fragments displaying different methylation behavior during the ploidy conversions were isolated and sequenced. It demonstrated that alterations in the level of methylation have the most profound effects on coding genes. We demonstrated that there are some genes expressions modified by DNA methylation may be correlated with phenotypic alteration after autotetraploidization.

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Summary

Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic methods with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) have been established and validated for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of eight steroidal saponins in ten batches of Gongxuening capsule (GXN), a widely commercially available traditional Chinese preparation. The optimum chromatographic conditions entailed use of a Kromasil C18 column with acetonitrile-water (30:70 to 62:38, υ/υ) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD was 102°C and the nebulizing gas flow rate was 2.8 L min−1. Separation was successfully achieved within 25 min. LC-ESI-MSn was used for unequivocal identification of the constituents of the samples by comparison with reference compounds. The assay was fully validated for precision, repeatability, accuracy, and stability, then successfully applied to quantification of the eight compounds in samples. The method could be effective for evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of GXN.

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Abstract  

A series of anion-cation surfactants modified organoclays are prepared by incorporating both cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB), and anionic surfactant, sodiumdodecyl sulfonate (SDS), to montmorillonite. The added amounts of surfactant varied from 0.2 to 4.0 CEC of the used montmorillonite, similar to those reported in literature. A combination of elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis is used in the characterization of the resulting organoclays. The experimental results show that anionic surfactants can not be intercalated into the montmorillonite whereas they can be loaded onto cationic modified montmorillonite, resulting in a further increase of organic carbon content of the resulting organoclays. This study demonstrates that SDS can be intercalated into montmorillonite interlayer space through the interaction with HDTMAB rather than by ion exchange. The intercalation of SDS results in an increase of the basal spacing of the resulting organoclays when comparing with HDTMAB modified montmorillonite and higher decomposition temperature of the intercalated surfactants when comparing with them in bulk state. These new insights are of high importance in the application of organoclays in the fields of remediation of polluted water and synthesis of clay based nanocomposites.

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Abstract  

Neutron capture cross sections on 63Cu and 186W were measured by fast neutron activation method at neutron energies from 1 to 2 MeV. Monoenergetic fast neutrons were produced by 3H(p,n)3He reaction. Neutron energy spread by target thickness, which was assumed to be the main factor of neutron energy spread, was estimated to be 1.5% at neutron energy of 2.077 MeV. Neutron capture cross sections on 63Cu and 186W were calculated by reference comparison method on those of 197Au(n,γ). Not only statistical errors of gamma-counts from samples but also systematic errors in the counting efficiency for HP Ge detector and the uncertainty of areal density of samples were considered in calculating neutron capture cross section. Estimated neutron capture cross sections on 63Cu and 186W were also compared with ENDF-6 data.

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Summary

Chestnut exhibits anti-inflammatory, styptic, anti-diarrhea, and analgestic effects as a traditional Chinese medicine. There is increasing evidence that shows that the consumption of chestnuts has become more important in human nutrition due to the health benefits provided by the antioxidants. The phenolic compounds are responsible for major bioactivities, such as anti-tumor and anti-oxidation. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode array detection (DAD) was established for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds (gallic acid, GA; protocatechuic acid, PR; catechin, CA; epicatechin, EP; quercetin, QU; kaempferol, KA) in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima blume) kernel. The sample followed by separation on Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, id., 5 μm) with gradient elution of methanol-1.0% acetate acid solution as a mobile phase, at a temperature of 30°C, under the ratio of 1.2 mL min−1, with 5 μL injection volume, and multi-wavelength synthesis was used with DAD. The correlation coefficients were larger than 0.999, the recoveries were 97.58% for GA, 100.41% for PA, 96.23% for CA, 101.38% for QU, 99.15% for EP, and 98.60% for KA, relative standard deviation (RSD) were 1.04% for GA, 1.21% for PA, 1.09% for CA, 1.19% for QU, 1.06% for EP, and 1.20% for KA. This method was applied for the determination of phenolics in chestnut kernel and was found to be fast, sensitive, and suitable.

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Summary In this study, the thermal properties of agro-flour-filled polybutylene succinate (PBS) bio-composites were investigated. PBS is one of the biodegradable polymers made from the condensation reaction of glycols and dicarboxylic acid and is naturally degraded by natural soil burial system. The thermal properties of the bio-composites were analyzed according to the agro-flour content and mesh size. On increasing agro-flour content, the thermal stability, degradation temperature and derivative thermogravimetric curve (DTGmax) temperature of the bio-composites decreased while the ash content increased. The thermal degradation of the bio-composites was not affected by agro-flour mesh size. The glass transition (T g) and melting (T m) temperatures of the bio-composites were not significantly changed. The storage modulus (E’) of the bio-composites was higher than that of neat PBS, because the incorporation of agro-flour increased the stiffness of the bio-composites. At higher temperatures, E’ of the bio-composites decreased due to the increasing viscosity and chain mobility of neat PBS. The thermal properties of bio-composites have an important effect on the manufacturing system and application methods.

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TG interfaced to FTIR. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.

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