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  • Author or Editor: Tamás Horváth M x
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A huszadik század hetvenes és nyolcvanas éveitől kezdve a közszektor területén egyre inkább törekedtek az üzleti szférában alkalmazott szervezési módszerek elterjesztésére. Ezzel összefüggésben egyre nagyobb jelentőséget tulajdonítottak az állami túlvállalás leépítésének, valamint a decentralizációnak. A kormányzatok önkormányzat-politikai gyakorlatának középpontjába az ún. alternatív közszolgáltatás-szervezési formák kerültek. Noha a nyugati „konzervatív”korszakváltás óta történtek újabb politikai fordulatok, a szóban forgó igazgatásszervezési értékek és megoldások maradandónak bizonyultak.

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The anticipated transformation of public utility sector at local level consists of the following main steps. Firstly, after the devolution, commercialisation takes place and the sector becomes independent of municipalities. Then, cost recovery begins to operate through tariffs instead of former budgetary transfers and simple cross-subsidies. Parallel to this, service regulations and quality standards are legislated. This is followed by the establishment of semi-autonomous regulatory agencies in the emerging market environment. However, in reality the development process is not so linear. Transition countries have to face not only the traditional failures of government functions. As competition is underdeveloped, market conditions should be established together with correction of market failures and design of new-born public regulatory functions, absolutely at the same time. In this situation market and government failures are mixed. These cumulative transformation failures might be avoided only with effective national and local policies.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Markus M. Heimesaat, Gernot Reifenberger, Viktoria Vicena, Anita Illes, Gabriella Horvath, Andrea Tamas, Balazs D. Fulop, Stefan Bereswill and Dora Reglodi

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypetide (PACAP) constitutes a neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the host exerting essential cytoprotective properties, whereas PACAP−/− mice display increased susceptibility to distinct immunopathological conditions. The orchestrated interplay between the gut microbiota and the host is pivotal in immune homeostasis and resistance to disease. Potential pertubations of the intestinal microbiota in PACAP−/− mice, however, have not been addressed so far. For the first time, we performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota composition in PACAP−/− and wildtype (WT) mice starting 2 weeks postpartum until 18 months of age applying quantitative culture-independent techniques. Fecal enterobacteria and enterococci were lower in PACAP−/− than WT mice aged 1 month and ≥6 months, respectively. Whereas Mouse Intestinal Bacteroides were slightly higher in PACAP−/− versus WT mice aged 1 and 6 months, this later in life held true for Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. (≥12 months) and lactobacilli (>15 months of age). Strikingly, health-beneficial bifidobacteria were virtually absent in the intestines of PACAP−/− mice, even when still breastfed. In conclusion, PACAP deficiency is accompanied by distinct changes in fecal microbiota composition with virtually absent bifidobacteria as a major hallmark that might be linked to increased susceptibility to disease.

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