High residence time due to dead-zones in fluid flow can appear in many engineering application and may cause severe water quality problems. Dead-zones can be eliminated only if their locations are known well. In this paper three different methods of deadzone detection are described and compared, particularly the coherent structure concept. This approach is based on the velocity gradient tensor of fluid flow, which is pre-calculated with the tool of computational fluid dynamics. The method was applied in a channel flow with a sediment trap and in a small swimming pool.
Aerobic wastewater treatment requires extensive aeration, which primary function is to provide oxygen to the biomass responsible for degradation of wastewater constituents. Besides the effective oxygen transfer efficiency aeration is responsible for fluid flow created by bubbles. In this research bubbles were released from plate diffusers and the impact on mixing were analyzed. Various aeration flow rates and initial bubble sizes were calculated. Residence time distributions in each scenario were compared applying numerical tracer study. Outcome of the calculations is that the aeration reduces the theoretical residence time significantly and therefore the traditional sizing methods needs to be revisit in wastewater treatment.
Sequencing batch reactor systems in wastewater treatment is widely applied activated sludge technology. The system performance is not only dependent on the raw sewage quality and biochemical processes, but the flow pattern within the reactor has a significant impact on the treatment itself. The varying stages of the operation require different fluid flow conditions; biological stage shall be appropriately mixed, whereas low velocity zones favor the phase separation. The aim of this study was to improve sequencing batch reactor operation in order to optimize the treatment efficiency. Numerical fluid dynamic simulations were performed to determine the substrate and biomass homogeneity inside the reactor at the biological phase and the rate of the decantation was estimated at the sedimentation phase. The settling model was calibrated by field measurements. The results revealed that the hydraulic efficiency of the reactor was 87% and the achievable settled solid content was 0.9%.
Denitrification is a key process in wastewater treatment since it is responsible for the effective nutrient removal. It requires anoxic conditions, where only chemically bound nitrogen is used as an oxygen source, and no aeration is applied. In suspended biomass systems the growth and homogenization of biomass is essential, high degree of mixing is required, which is achieved only by using mechanical mixers. Mechanical mixing performance relies on the mixing power determined by the equipment dimensions and rotational speed. In this paper the effect of three different rotational speed (rpm: 100, 400, 900 min-1) on flow field and mixing conditions are evaluated. As a result of the simulations, the acceptable flow field was achieved at 400 rpm. The outcome of this research is that the high degree of energy transfer from mixers to fluid flow deteriorated mixing efficiency.
Decentralized wastewater systems treat, dispose and reuse the wastewater in the vicinity of source, reducing the sewage transportation cost to minimal. As an alternative to centralized systems it can function as a satellite system or an individual wastewater treatment unit. Design an onsite facility applies the same sizing procedure compared the conventional large scale systems, whereas the input flow data and its variability, the model parameters could differ. In this study a small size treatment unit was designed by biokinetic modeling, where the model parameters were estimated using analytical methods. As a result of the calculation the biomass build-up and the quality of the treated effluent was predicted and the operation parameters were determined in summer and winter operation.