According to UNHCR, around 12 million people still continue to be denied the right to nationality, and the persistence of “legal ghosts” is likely to be the case on the long run. The article aims at drawing a picture on the legal status and protection of stateless persons, granted principally by public international law and partly, indirectly the law of the European Union. It sheds light to the rather sporadic but noteworthy developments in international law after the adoption of the 1954 New York Convention, then examines the added value of the EU legal order, even if the Community legislator only treated the stateless in an indirect manner. It concludes that the EU law is an extra but thin layer on the international legal framework protecting stateless persons; thus the EU should make steps, using the new legal basis in the Treaty of Lisbon, so as to strengthen the status of these “legal ghosts”.
A TNF-α-blokkolók bevezetése drámai változást jelentett a kezelésre refrakter IBD-ben szenvedő betegek ellátásában. Az infliximab és adalimumab is bizonyítottan hatékony a közepesen súlyos-súlyos fokú CD-, valamint az infliximab UC-remisszió indukciójában és fenntartásában, bár refrakter CD esetében a betegek 20–30, UC-ben 30–40%-a ezen terápiás eljárásokra sem reagál. A két hasonló támadáspontú szert összehasonlító vizsgálatra nem került sor, és a tanulmányok direkt összevetése nem megbízható, azonban az általános állásfoglalás alapján lényeges különbség a vegyületek hatékonyságában nincs.
What motivates a student to start a scientific work under his university years? Can this be only personal inspiration? Are the studies before the University determinative?The completed scientific paper reviews the elements of the building energy-balance. Also it shows the practical shaping of a building. These solutions are not only advantageous because of the energy consumption but also make the space around the inhabitants more comfortable with passive, hybrid and active solar means.
The Archaeology Museum of the Janus Pannonius Museum in Pécs is standing on the civil main square of the city, next to the mosque of Gazi Kassim, which is outstandingly unique in Europe, among eclectic walls. The architect’s aim was at the reconstruction of the Archaeology Museum that the archaeological givens and the renovations from the middle ages till the 21
century should be presented. The area and the building itself have written the scenario of the exhibition. At the reconstruction of the building the architects also used the possibilities of the ecological techniques.
Five universities were cooperating by an Erasmus Intensive Program entitled Parzival meets modern architecture. Coordinator of the program was the Fachhochschule Joanneum University of Applied Sciences from Graz, Austria. Four universities from four countries were the project partners, among them the University of Pécs. Altogether 56 students tried to find a solution for the future of the Castle of Borl in Slovenia. The castle was originally built in the 11–12th century. Its other name is the Castle of Ankenstein. It is located on a cliff over the river Drava. The history of the castle is somehow related to the legend of Parzival. As the building is situated in a beautiful landscape it is really important for the Slovenian government to find a solution for the function and for the future of Borl. The international cooperation of the above mentioned five universities hopefully could help local and national authorities to decide how the Castle of Borl should be developed.
Since the Treaty of Maastricht, EU law has become more open to international law and has engaged with it in different forms of interactions. The influence of EU law on universal law-making has found its way through different legal channels and techniques. The article thoroughly scrutinizes the impact of EU return acquis on the development of the international law governing the ‘expulsion of aliens’, which can be best analysed through the work of the UN International Law Commission (ILC) on the expulsion of aliens (2004–2014). The ILC’s approach has come a long way from the mere ignorance of EU law and the EU’s submissions by the special rapporteur in the early stages of the codification work until it has gradually taking into account major EU migration law concepts in ILC reports and in the draft articles. The 2014 ILC draft articles on the expulsion of aliens have finally been, in many aspects, inspired and influenced by EU law, especially the Return Directive (2008/115/EC). This short piece meticulously explores the inroads EU return law made in relation to the ILC work on the expulsion of aliens, by identifying and critically evaluating the tangible impact of EU law on the UN codification project.
The program of Temporary City supplies the cooperation between the Universities of European Capitals of Culture 2010 (ECoC). In the course of the program architect, environmental, and settlement designer students of the Technical Universities of Ruhr Area, Pécs and Istanbul work together in workshops in the hosting locations.
After canvassing the CJEU's return-related case-law and identifying the references to the ECHR and the Strasbourg case-law within it, based on empirical research of CJEU rulings, this article explores the possible reasons and motivations for the EU Court's more guarded approach towards ECHR and ECtHR case-law in interpreting and developing the EU's return acquis (as opposed to the EU asylum legislation). Potential explanations are manifold. Nonetheless, one might still argue that, substance-wise, quite a number of human rights protected under the ECHR and ECtHR case-law have been presented in the CJEU rulings as EU law standards. Hence, it is also arguable that ECtHR jurisprudence does play a role behind the scenes in the CJEU's deliberations but does not surface in the judgments themselves.
The concept of the autonomy of EU law has received, since its inception in the 1960s, remarkably little academic attention when compared to other basic EU law premises such as “primacy” or “direct effect”, particularly from the theoretical angle. However, “autonomy” is undisputedly a fundamental and structural principle of the EU legal order. Given the reflexive nature of the term “autonomy”, to be distinct from something and to be able to function separately, it presupposes one or more points of reference. If these are assumed in the form of legal orders, the autonomy of EU law can be basically conceived in two ways: vis-à-vis international law or the legal systems of Member States. The concept of autonomy is traditionally perceived with regard to international law (external dimension of autonomy) as leading judgments of the Court of Justice of the EU and many of its Opinions have further developed this doctrine. This short piece attempts to clarify the meaning of the external dimension of autonomy of EU law and discuss some of the associated challenges. In this context, the paper portrays the various legal techniques and substantive requirements for preserving the external autonomy of the EU legal order from international law.