The soaking step of dry pulse products' – e.g. chickpeas' – food processing is a time consuming process. Soaking time can be significantly reduced by ultrasonic treatment or using higher processing temperatures. The effect of ultrasonic treatment can be investigated by examining the soaking water characteristics. Ultrasound-assisted soaking of chickpeas was performed at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. Additionally, control samples were also prepared without ultrasonic treatment at the same temperatures. The dynamics of the fitted curve clearly shows the relationship namely the higher the treatment temperature, the faster the hydration of the raw material for both untreated and treated groups. In contrast to control group, swelling rate of 2.00 – except the group 45 °C – is not achieved during ultrasound-assisted soaking. In case of treated group, the swelling rate was about 1.90 for all temperatures applied. The ANOVA test shows that the color of the ultrasonically treated samples was significantly different compared to the control (F (5;12) = 207.86; P < 0.001). Average dry matter content and °Brix value were significantly higher in the ultrasound treated group compared to the control in case of all temperatures. This may indicate the destructive effect of ultrasound, which may cause more components to dissolve out of the raw material by the end of the soaking process.
Broccoli's high perishability and its sensitivity to negative quality changes (i.e., mass loss, ethylene induced degreening, abscission of leaves, and florets) generates quality problems during postharvest. Freshly harvested samples were stored at 5 and 21 °C after separately treated for 24 h with 625 ppb 1-methyl-cyclopropene (1-MCP), 24 h with 2 ppm ethylene and 1-MCP followed by ethylene. Quality maintenance effectivity of 1-MCP was investigated during cold and room storage by non-destructive optical methods (chlorophyll fluorescence and DA-index®) and by the evaluation of the visual physiological symptoms. The highly positive effects of 1-MCP treatment combined with cold storage were obviously proven on quality maintenance providing better retention of initial quality related to the initial mature green stage as chlorophyll content related DA-index®; Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, and Fm/F0 chlorophyll fluorescence values. From the practical point of view, the rapid, and easy-to-use Sintéleia FRM01-F Vis/NIR DA-meter® could be applied relatively easy for the quality measurement of broccoli. The reproducibility of quality determination could be increased by the enhanced number of measuring points or using computer aided imaging methods (i.e., chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, machine vision system) providing global and more reliable information about quality changes.
Banana is a really chilling injury sensitive product. Its sensitivity to cold temperatures generates serious practical, economical and commercial problems. Chilling injury related physiological responses of Cavendish type green banana samples stored at 2.5, 5, 10 °C and near optimal (15 °C) cold storage temperature were investigated by nondestructive optical methods (surface color and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement, DA-index® evaluation) and by the determination of the physiological reactions (respiration, ethylene production, symptom manifestation) during cold storage and the 8-day long subsequent shelf-life. The positive effects of low temperature storage were proven on mass loss, respiration and ethylene production. In case of bananas stored at 2.5–10 °C, the chilling injury related changes in chlorophyll content related DA-index®, IR-values; Fm and Fv chlorophyll fluorescence values, the L*, a*, b*, C* and hue angle color characteristics suggested clearly from day 3 the onset of chilling injury several days before the visible signs of chilling injury appeared.
In the experiments, the sound generated during the breaking of chocolate samples was examined. The fracture was performed by a precision penetrometer, the breaking sound was recorded. Texture index (TI) was calculated from the resulting signal. First the change of the resulting TI was monitored as a function of the samples' temperature. The sample groups of the same dark chocolate with different temperatures were completely separated from each other with statistical tool (LDA, linear discriminant analyses), but no trend was found to describe the change. Secondly, based on the TI, we could identify and classify the chocolate samples in the appropriate groups (based on cocoa content from 40 to 85%). According to linear discriminant analyses chocolates with different cocoa content were completely separated and showed a certain pattern. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the cocoa content of chocolate can be determined on the basis of TI obtained by acoustic method.
Among improper harvest and/or postharvest storage conditions, the effect of direct sunlight plays an important role in quality degradation of potato resulting in the development of green surface color based on chlorophyll formation associated with the formation of poisonous chemicals – glycoalcaloids – known as α-chaconine and α-solanine. Yellow skinned and fleshed potatoes with or without visible initial marks of green surface color were stored at normal room temperature under direct natural (sun)light conditions for almost two months. The aim of this study was the preliminary investigation of the sunlight induced formation of chlorophyll related compounds in potato indirectly by the detection of chlorophyll development. This attempt was based on nondestructive determination of chlorophyll related spectral and fluorescence indices for both sunlight exposed and unexposed potato sides. For both potato groups the chlorophyll content related DA-index® and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics (F0, Fm, Fv and Fv/Fm) increased during the storage period representing chlorophyll formation. In the case of Fm, Fv and Fv/Fm values, the yellow samples reached the values of the initial spotted green samples by the 7th–9th days. From this time, the chlorophyll fluorescence values changed only minimally. After storage day 34, in the case of both at day 0 yellow and green spotted potatoes, the sunny side's F0 value was lower than that of shaded side. Close relationship was found between the results of Walz monitoring-PAM (Pulse Amplitude-Modulated) chlorophyll fluorometer and the PSI (Photon Systems Instruments) chlorophyll fluorescence imaging device (e.g. Fv R2 = 0.7226). According to our preliminary results, the Vis/NIR DA-meter®, the monitoring-PAM and the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging fluorometers were found to be suitable nondestructive devices for further investigations concerning the postharvest chlorophyll formation based greening phenomena, which is associated with solanine development in potato.
Application of cold storage temperatures below optimum induces a high risk and threat of chilling injury (CI) in the case of sensitive commodities. Sweet pepper belongs to this group of vegetables, so our main objective was to investigate and monitor the effect of non-optimal temperatures (2.5 and 5 °C) induced stress (chilling injury) on kápia type sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during its postharvest storage by nondestructive quality measuring methods. Fresh, semi-matured (reddish-green colored) samples of ‘Kapitány F1’ cultivar were stored at 2.5, 5 and 10 °C for 7 d followed by 7 d shelf-life. Nondestructive texture measurements were carried out by a purpose built tabletop acoustic stiffness device. Surface color and chlorophyll content related quality indices were evaluated by a chroma meter, a DA-meter® and a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system. High resolution digital pictures were captured and analyzed for possible CI defects by means of surface color values (normalized RGB, hue and saturation). According to our results, the evaluated quality indices (DA-index®, acoustic stiffness coefficient, surface color parameters; F0, Fm, Fv and Fv/Fm chlorophyll fluorescence parameters) clearly represented the temperature dependent quality changes during low temperature storage, subsequently followed by ambient shelf-life. Samples stored under and at 5 °C showed the chilling temperature stressed symptoms of delayed and partly retarded postharvest ripening, even under simulated shelf-life conditions, but without the onset and manifestation of the characteristic visible symptoms of chilling injury. This may raise doubts and suggest possible future research areas regarding the role of non-optimal cold storage temperatures induced stress, the effect of chilling injury contributing factors and consequences.
This work was aimed to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), ethylene absorber (EA), ozone alone or in combination on melon quality during storage. Ethylene production, respiration rates, acoustic firmness, surface color, chilling injury, and disease severity of melon were determined. 1-MCP treated fruits and non 1-MCP treated fruits were stored with sachets of ethylene absorber containing KMnO4 or ozone at 0.1 ppm/h during 10 days at 5 °C and subsequent 4 days at 20 °C. Melons treated with 1-MCP were firmer than the rest of the samples during storage. In addition, 1-MCP reduced the yellowing of melon rind compared to other treatments. The combination of 1-MCP and EA did not offer any additional effect in comparison with 1-MCP alone. There was no significant difference between fruits stored with ethylene absorber, ozone and control samples. Ozone treatment during cold storage decreased disease severity, however, fruits exposed to ozone had more serious decay throughout storage at 20 °C, probably due to the unclean air in the chamber.
Az infektív endocarditis a szervtranszplantált betegek körében aluldiagnosztizált
kórkép. A kórokozók spektruma különbözik az átlagpopulációt érintőtől. A szerzők
az 58 éves nőbetegben atípusos kórokozó által okozott, atípusos megjelenésű
infektív endocarditis eredményes kezeléséről számolnak be. A betegnél alkoholos
májcirrhosis talaján kialakult májelégtelenség miatt 2000. februárban
májátültetést végeztek. Egy évvel a májátültetést követően krónikus hepatitis
B-vírus-fertőzést állapítottak meg, és a beteg antivirális kezelésben részesült.
Kalcineurintoxicitás miatt veseelégtelenség alakult ki, ezt követően a beteg
2007 júliusában vesepótló kezelésre szorult. 2013 novemberében rövid ideig tartó
afázia jelentkezett. A transoesophagealis echokardiográfia az aortabillentyűn
vegetációt talált, a mágneses rezonanciás vizsgálat agyi embolisatiót mutatott
ki. A laboratóriumi vizsgálatok enyhén emelkedett C-reaktív protein- és normális
prokalcitoninszinteket igazoltak, vérképében leukopenia volt látható. Kezdeti
antibiotikus terápiaként naponta 2 g ceftiraxont és 60 mg gentamycint iv.
alkalmaztak a dialízisek után. A hemokultúravizsgálatok negatívak voltak, a
szerológiai vizsgálat Chlamydia pneumoniae-fertőzést igazolt.
Moxifloxacinnal kiegészített kezelést követően a neurológiai tünetei
visszatértek, ezért műtétre került sor (koronarográfiát követően valvulotomia és
coronariabypass-műtét). A beteg állapota a műtét után javult, a neurológiai
tünetek nem ismétlődtek. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(22),
The effect of storage temperature and ozone treatment on the post-harvest quality of cucumber and tomato was investigated. Cucumber and tomato were stored together with or without gaseous ozone treatment at 20 °C and 14 °C for 16 days. Firmness, color, weight loss, DA index and decay percentage of samples were evaluated during storage period. The results showed that the combination of ozone treatment and cold storage could maintain the quality of these horticultural products and decreased the decay incidence. Additionally, this combination also reduced the weight loss of samples during storage. Furthermore, ozone treatment maintained the green skin color of cucumber. No sign of chilling injury occurred during storage at 14 °C. Commodities stored with approximately 0.1 ppm gaseous ozone at 14 °C retained the firmness compared to other treatments until the end of the experiment. This study suggests a promising use of gaseous ozone treatment in storage chamber where ethylene-producing and ethylene-sensitive vegetables are stored together.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of packaging perforation on quality of carrot slices during cold storage at 5 °C. Polyethylene bags with different number of perforations (3, 4, and 6) were used in this experiment. Headspace oxygen concentration, respiration, weight loss, surface color, firmness, pH, and soluble solid content were examined throughout storage. It was observed, that all the investigated packaging were effective in maintaining the quality of carrot slices compared to the control. There was no symptom of decay until 12 days. In addition, pH, soluble solid content, and firmness showed nonsignificant change. Moreover, weight loss of packed carrot slices was below 2% after 12 days of storage. Packed carrot had better appearance at the end of experiment (12 days) than that of control.