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Abstract

Using a collection of papers gathered from the Web of Science, and defining disciplines by the JCR classification, this paper compares the disciplinary structure of the G7 countries (representing high S&T level countries) and the BRIC countries (representing fast breaking countries in S&T) by using bibliometric methods. It discusses the similarity and the balance of their disciplinary structure. We found that: (1) High S&T level countries have a similar national disciplinary structure; (2) In recent years the disciplinary structure of the BRIC countries has become more and more similar to that of the G7 countries; (3) The disciplinary structure of the G7 countries is more balanced than that of the BRIC countries (4) In the G7 countries more emphasis goes to the life sciences, while BRIC countries focus on physics, chemistry, mathematics and engineering.

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Summary  

The Am(III) adsorption isotherms on natural hematite, on a red earth and on three kinds of treated red earth samples were determined and compared. The treatment was performed to remove iron oxides, organic matter (OM) and both. The batch technique and aqueous Am(III) solutions with molarities less than 3 . 10-9 mol/l were used. A very high adsorbability of Am(III) on hematite was found, and in order to decrease the adsorption percentage, stable Eu3+ as a hold back carrier was added to the aqueous solution. All the isotherms were found to be linear. The strong effects of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid (FA) on the Am(III) adsorption on natural hematite were demonstrated. A positive contribution of OM and an unexpectedly high negative influence of iron oxides on the Am(III) adsorption by the untreated red earth were found too. The average distribution coefficients of Am(III) adsorption on natural hematite, on red earth and on three kinds of treated red earth samples were determined, respectively, from these linear isotherms. The very high adsorbability of Am(III) on hematite and the very strong negative influence of iron oxides on the Am(III) adsorption on untreated red earth were distinctly demonstrated as well. It appears that the adsorbability of composed natural materials cannot be predicted from the adsorbabilities of each of the mineral components alone, due to possible interactions between the mineral components and the different characteristics of the composite.

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Abstract  

The i-butyldodecylsulfoxide (BDSO) was synthesized. The extraction of uranium(VI) has been carried out with BDSO in toluene from various HNO3 concentrations. It was found that the distribution ratio increases with increasing nitric acid concentration up to 3.0 mol/l and then decreases. The distribution ratios also increase with increasing extractant concentration. The extracted species appears to be UO2(NO3)2·2BDSO and the equilibrium constant value is 15.2. The influence of temperature, sodium nitrate and oxalate concentrations on the extraction was also investigated, and the thermodynamic functions of the extraction reaction were obtained.

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Summary  

The parameters affecting the formation of the microemulsion were investigated and the microemulsion region was determined. The extraction of uranium(VI) from HNO3 solution into a water in oil microemulsion was studied. The effects of the concentration of extractant (TRPO), the volume ratio of oil to water and the acidity of outer water phase on the extraction equilibrium of uranium(VI) are discussed and the appropriate conditions are obtained. The result showed the microemulsion has great efficiency for uranium(VI) extraction.

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Abstract  

The kinetics and mechanism of uranium(VI) extraction from nitric acid solution by bis(octylsulfinyl)methane (BOSM) are studied with the method of stationary interface cell. The effects of temperature, extractant and nitric acid concentrations are discussed. The results showed that the extraction process is controlled by the following reaction: UO2(NO3)2 + BOSM(i)k1 k-1UO2(NO3)2BOSM(i). The variation of enthalpy associated with the extraction is -22.1±2.1 kJ/mol.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors: Shaoshi Wen, Zixin Zhang, Xiaopeng Chen, Jinchang Liu, Haiyang Yu, Lifeng Han, Lijun Jin, Yi Zhang, and Tao Wang

Uric acid (UA) is the final product of purine metabolism in humans. Elevated serum UA levels lead to the development of hyperuricemia, gout, kidney diseases, and metabolic syndrome. Accurate determination of UA plays a critical role in clinical diagnosis and laboratory investigation. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with ultraviolet detection method has been developed and validated for UA analysis. Separation was achieved by a Waters ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) Amide column (50 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 1.7 μm) with acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid in deionized water in the proportion of 90 to 10 (v/v) as the mobile phase. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.09 and 0.18 μmol/L, respectively. The method was validated by evaluating recovery (98.37–104.20%), accuracy (0.47–0.90%), and precision (1.24–1.81% for intra-batch and 1.76–3.98% for inter-batch). This method was then applied to UA determination in rat serum of hyperuricemia model. The results from UPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and uric acid kits (phosphor-tungstic acid-based kit and uricase-based kit) were compared. The UPLC results were in very good agreement with HPLC. The developed method could be employed as a useful tool for the determination of UA in biofluids.

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JPC - Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC
Authors: Kit-leong Cheong, Ding-tao Wu, De-jun Hu, Jing Zhao, Kai-yue Cao, Chun-feng Qiao, Bang-xing Han, and Shao-ping Li

Multiple species of ginseng are well-known Chinese medicinal herbs. The glycome of Panax species has various beneficial effects; however, studies related to their systematic profiling are very limited. Therefore, the systematic profiling of the glycome of Panax species was investigated in this study. The sugars from different locations and different species of Panax (Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, and Panax notoginseng) were prepared by microwave-assisted extraction. Free mono- and oligo-saccharides were identified by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Furthermore, polysaccharides were compared and characterized by using saccharide mapping based on HPTLC analysis. The results showed that the mono- and oligo-saccharide in Panax species were similar, including the glucan and pectin type of polysaccharides in different locations and different species of Panax, respectively. The data are helpful to better understand the glycome of different species of Panax and may contribute to rational usage of polysaccharides from Panax species.

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