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Scientometrics
Authors:
Anthony Nasir
,
Tariq Mahmood Ali
,
Sheikh Shahdin
, and
Tariq Ur Rahman

Abstract

Ranking of 91 countries based on the Technology Achievement Index 2009 (TAI-09) (2009 refers to the year in which most of data collection was carried out.) is reported. Originally proposed in 2002, the TAI is a composite indicator which aggregates national technological capabilities and performance in terms of creation/diffusion of new technologies, diffusion of old technologies and development of human skills. In addition to the overall ranking of 91 countries, rankings in each sub-dimension of the Index are also reported. Comparative analysis of TAI ranking of 56 countries, common to the present and previous study of 2002 under similar conditions, is quite instructive and indicates shifts in technological scenario of these countries even over a relatively short period of 5–6 years. A simple concept based on Standard Deviation approach, as an indication of the technological spread or otherwise, is proposed for the first time. Application of this concept to 56 common countries is reported.

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A simple, sensitive, precise, rapid, and reliable high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous estimation of sparfloxacin (SPF) and flurbiprofen (FLB) in bulk drug as well as in dual drug loaded poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles was developed. In this method, aluminumbacked silica gel 60 F254 plates (20 × 10 cm: 200 μm thickness) were used as stationary phase and chloroform-methanol-formic acid (7.5:1:1, v/v) as an optimized mobile phase. Developed chromatogram was scanned at 258 nm, the wavelength of maximum absorption SPF and FLB. Regression analysis of the calibration data showed an excellent linear relationship between peak area versus drug concentration. Linearity was found to be in the range of 100–600 ng spot−1 and 40–800 ng spot−1 for SPF and FLB, respectively. The suitability of the developed HPTLC method for simultaneous estimation of SPF and FLB was established by validating it as per the ICH guidelines. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for SPF were found to be ≈13 and ≈40 ng spot−1, respectively, and those for FLB ≈27 ng spot−1 and ≈82 ng spot−1, respectively. The developed method was found to be linear (r 2 = 0.999), precise (% RSD < 1.5% repeatability and <2.55% for intermediate precision), accurate (mean recovery of within the range of 98–102%), specific, and robust. Stress-induced degradation studies revealed the suitability of method for the quantitative determination of drugs in the presence of degradants. The developed method has been successfully applied for the determination of entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release profile and stability assessment of dual drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs).

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Rashad Alkasir
,
Jianfang Wang
,
Jian Gao
,
Tariq Ali
,
Limei Zhang
,
Ottó Szenci
,
Árpád Csaba Bajcsy
, and
Bo Han

Trueperella (T.) pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative diseases in domestic animals. In this work, the properties, pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity of T. pyogenes isolates from bovine mastitis were studied. Both pyolysin (plo) and collagen-binding protein (cbp) virulence factor genes were detected by PCR in all T. pyogenes isolates (n = 50). Using the tissue culture plate method, 90% of T. pyogenes isolates were able to form biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 antimicrobials against T. pyogenes isolates were determined. High susceptibility was observed to rifampin (96%), ampicillin (94%), ciprofloxacin (94%), and penicillin (92%), while low susceptibility was found to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (10%) and bacitracin (2%). The intracellular assay revealed that T. pyogenes isolates had different cytopathogenic effects on cells. The high percentage (28.6%) of T. pyogenes isolates suggests that this bacterium is an important contributor to mastitis. Moreover, the high occurrence of multidrug resistance, biofilm production, intracellular survival, and the temporal dynamics of T. pyogenes interactions are key factors for a better understanding of how immunity acts on infections with these bacteria and how they evade immune surveillance, thus highlighting the need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine.

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