The displacement of a loaded pile could be vertical (axial) or horizontal (lateral); these displacements are sensitive to groundwater presence within the soil mass. This paper presents a theoretical study to investigate vertical and horizontal displacement of piles embedded in a clayey soil for different levels of groundwater under the ground surface. The study was performed using the commercial finite element package PLAXIS-3D. Three diameters of the concrete piles were considered: 0.5, 0.75 and 1 m, and were subjected to 1,000 kN axial load. The effect of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 m groundwater along the 20 m pile in length from the ground surface on the vertical and horizontal displacements was investigated. The results indicated that the vertical and horizontal displacements increase when the ground water level increases towards the base of pile. Also, there is a significant increase in the horizontal displacement up to 15 m of groundwater level from ground surface and decreased at levels from 15 to 20 m.
Due to the increase in earthquake activity in Iraq and Middle East during the last two decades, the study and understanding of probable destructive action and the best method to mitigate this effect became more important. So, many improvements and mitigation methods can be used. In this study, the use of permeation grout technique was adopted to prevent the existing soil condition in urban area by using cement kiln dust and bentonite clay. The tests were executed by using 1 g shaking table apparatus to simulate a sinusoidal motion (vibration) at specified different frequencies. The liquefaction phenomena were observed for loose saturated sand at 60 s, 25 s, and 10 s for 0.5 Hz, 0.75 Hz, and 1 Hz, respectively. After mitigation process, the soil liquefaction did not occur until 100 s, 60 s, and 30 s, for the same mentioned frequencies. Besides, the use of cement kiln dust decreases the liquefaction potential and increase the factor of safety.
This paper presents an experimental work of using crushed glass mixed with the poorly graded sandy soil to investigate the possibility of shear strength parameters improvement using the direct shear test. The crushed glass is sieved and prepared for seven sets of percentages, the collected percentages of crushed glass represented a mix of glass retained on sieves No. 4, No. 8, No. 30, No. 100, and No. 200 and were added as a weight ratio of the sample for many cases. The main results of this work show that the mixing 10% of crushed glass for sieves No. 8, No. 200, and No. 50 increase the angle of internal friction of poorly graded sand (Ø˚) about 15%, 3%, and 29% respectively, and mixing 10% of crushed glass retained on sieve No. 4 decrease Ø˚ about 40%.
Prying force formation at bolts is considered as an important problem in steel connection design. It affects the connection bearing capacity, ductility and serviceability negatively by increasing stresses induced inside connections. In the present work, behavior of steel connection under prying force is studied. A connection of steel beam-column has been modeled using software Revit program. Tension load is applied increasingly and the connection displacement has been measured until failure. Finite element simulation of steel angles under the effect of tension load and prying force has been studied. It is found that the connection has three phases of bearing behavior. Plastic hinge formation noticed increased with prying force presence.
Ignition of waste paper sludge at elevated temperatures to produce electricity in power generation plants utilizing fluidized bed combustion generates paper sludge ash. Due to the high concentration of lime and gelignite in paper sludge ash, it is expected that it will play a vital role as a cementitious material. This paper investigates the use of paper sludge ash to improve the mechanical properties of the granular materials, which are suitable to subbase course for road and building constructions. Also, a comparison study with the use of Portland cement as an additive to granular materials has been covered. The mechanical properties were evaluated by conducting the California bearing ratio test for the two adopted methods. Moreover, the compressive strength of the samples using paper sludge ash and cement are investigated. In accordance to the California bearing ratio test, 4% paper sludge ash was indicated as the optimum ash content at which the California bearing ratio value increased by 173% and 111% in comparison with untreated material and 6% cement, respectively. On the other hand, and by means of the compressive strength, the granular materials with 4% paper sludge ash has compressive strength higher than those with 6% cement.