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  • Author or Editor: Teodóra Tomcsányi x
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A tanulmány először a pszichológia eszköztárával vizsgálja a bűntudatot és a szégyent, majd a személyiségre gyakorolt hatásukat írja le. Ennek kapcsán kitér a felelősség kérdésére, a döntési szabadságra, valamint a személyiségre gyakorolt pozitív és negatív hatásokra is: az ellenséges érzésekre, adaptációs zavarokra, az ekkléziogén neurózisra és általában a vallásosságra gyakorolt hatásra. A teológusoknak és a pszichológusoknak a bűntudatról alkotott, egymástól eltérő vélekedése vezet a lelkigondozók és a pszichoterapeuták lehetséges együttműködésének elméleti és gyakorlati területére, esetleges problémáira. A tanulmányt olyan családterápiás esetek zárják, melyeket lelkigondozó és pszichoterapeuta együtt vezettek, és amelyeknek fókuszában a delegált bűntudat áll.

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A tanulmány Antoine Vergote több évtizedes, a vallás pszichológiájának európai fejlődésére nagy hatást gyakorló munkássága mentén ad betekintést ezen tudományterületbe, amely a hosszú elzártság következtében a magyar tudományos köztudatban csekély helyet kaphatott.Vergote széles elméleti háttérre támaszkodó életművén és pszichoanalitikus irányultságú iskolaalapító munkásságán keresztül ismertet meg a valláspszichológia úttörőjének sokszínű, empirikus kutatásokon alapuló tudományos módszereivel, előzetes megfontolásaival és több diszciplína megközelítését is inte_i

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The monograph introduces the reader to the psychology of religion through the work of Antoine Vergote, a theoretician who has influenced the development of this discipline in Europe in fundamental ways for several decades. Behind the iron curtain, the importance of a psychology of religion was suppressed and its cultivation banished from the scope of research. On the solid basis of his life’s work and of his psychoanalytically oriented pioneering research, Vergote now presents the Hungarian reader with empirical methods of studying various cases, his preliminary considerations, and the results of his investigations supported by his insight into several disciplines. Vergote approaches definitions, symbols, and rituals from a wide theoretical foundation making use of different fields such as psychology, theology, and a religiously based and practically oriented pedagogy. While the author has developed a system of criteria to distinguish between healthy and pathological forms of religious practices, he points out that the adequate training of the practitioner is key to a successful treatment. Vergote’s works are now an indispensable resource for any research in the field connecting psychology and theology.

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Our paper is a survey of the methodology of two effectivity studies of postgraduate training in community mental health promotion in Hungary. The aims of our study of the Helping Relationship Course were multifaceted: we intended to measure how much the student internalised a philosophy of non-directive counselling, the recognition of the client’s non-verbalised emotions and the possibilities of application of the helping relationship promoting community mental health, as well as the skills of reflecting on group behaviour. This was realised by means of a written case study. In the Appendix of our paper we also bring the evaluation questionnaire. In the Activity Supervising Course, the various helping activities and their representatives are introduced. Within the frame of the effectivity study we followed the impact of these presentations on representatives of other professions. Teachers and pastors were in the focus of the study: essays written on provocative questions concerning these two professional groups were content analysed, comparing the answers of different student cohorts (freshmen and graduates). In the case of both studies we briefly demonstrate the content and the form of the course discussed. This is followed by showing the specific aims and methods of the study in more detail, including the methods of collecting material and analysing data.

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Absztrakt

Tanulmányunkban bemutatjuk a Spirituális Transzcendencia Skála (STS, Piedmont, 1999, 2004a) magyar változatának elméleti hátterét és pszichometriai jellemzőit. Két, összesen 803 fős, segítő foglalkozásúakból (hitéleti végzettségűek, pszichoterapeuták és egyéb segítő foglalkozásúak) és nem segítő foglalkozású felnőttekből álló mintában a 23 tételes STS három alskálája, az ima/meditáció által érzett beteljesülés, az univerzalitás és az összekötöttség elfogadható pszichometriai jellemzőket mutatott. Az adatoknak az elméletileg várható, illetve az amerikai mintán mért empirikus komponensstruktúrához való illeszkedése a közepestől a kiválóig terjedt. A tanulmány javaslatot tesz a teszt rövidített, kilenctételes változatára is, mely alskálánként három tételből áll. A validitást tekintve a spiritualitás változói viszonylag függetlenek voltak a személyiség NEO-PI-R kérdőívvel mért öt alapdimenziójától, és az elvárt módon álltak összefüggésben a Kritika Utáni Vallásosság Skála által mért alapvető vallási attitűdökkel. A tanulmány végül leíró adatokat közöl mind az eredeti, mind pedig a rövidített skálára. Az eredmények összességében arra utalnak, hogy a spiritualitás az emberi tapasztalat önállóan is érvényes területe. Egyúttal igazolják, hogy az STS magyar változata jól alkalmazható az egyéni különbségek tanulmányozásában.

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European Journal of Mental Health
Authors: Béla Buda, Teodóra Tomcsányi, János Harmatta, Roger Csáky-Pallavicini and Gábor Paneth

This study provides an overview of how psychotherapy’s Hungarian representatives tried to safeguard and transmit psychotherapeutic training and practice during the time of socialist dictatorship. At first, even some Soviet ideologists had considered psychoanalysis to be compatible with Marxist ideology. However, over the course of a few years, socialist ideology exerted pressure on psychotherapy’s theory, training, and therapeutic practice. This was done initially on an ideological level, but later it increasingly resorted to physical violence as well, both there and through its export to a Hungary occupied by the Soviet army. All this was similar to its stand against the arts and literature. The first thing to appear as a result of this was a denial of the necessity of psychotherapy (stating that psychotherapy was only needed because of ‘capitalist market conditions’, with even the teaching of psychology being nearly stopped); later anyone could face serious repercussions for belonging to any school of psychotherapy, especially the analytic. It was also a part of the arsenal of those in power to put crucial centres of therapy decisively under the leadership of appropriately aligned neurophysiologists for long periods of time. The state kept these under strict control, and healing was reduced to medication procedures. The authors provide examples of the modest internal and external opportunities that nevertheless arose for prominent representatives of psychotherapy to solve these dilemmas. With the weakening of the dictatorship, the war on psychotherapy also subsided in a relative and inconsistent way. At this point, events in the politics of science were characterised by the degree of loyalty to the Soviet association, who were visibly abusing psychiatry, and the fight to preserve the relative independence of this field of science. The final part of the study touches upon one or two dilemmas of the heroic age of starting over that surfaced at the time of the political system’s change.

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European Journal of Mental Health
Authors: Teodóra Tomcsányi, Roger Csáky-Pallavicini, Gábor Ittzés, Gábor Semsey and Péter Török

In contemporary societies, health is widely recognised as the most valuable personal asset. It has undergone significant reconceptualisation in recent decades, of which the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) is a major document, advocating empowerment and community mental health thinking. Such concepts have fallen on fertile ground in East Central Europe, where a veritable community mental health promotion movement has sprung up, soon developing institutional means of disseminating the novel views. A discussion of the East Central European scene is introduced by an overview of the emergence and key elements of community mental health thinking and of the possible levels of corresponding intervention. An examination is offered of the deforming effects of dictatorship on community mental health, using the related notions of salutogenesis and Sense of Coherence to deepen the analysis. An exemplary graduate program was developed and established in Hungary even before the Ottawa Charter stated its directive on training. It is designed not so much to convey specialised knowledge as to impart a set of skills and competencies through which helping professionals are better equipped to practice their primary vocation and promote the mental health of the wider community. The program's goals, contents, structure and specific features are described in detail, emphasising knowledge of self and society, multidisciplinarity, a holistic approach and society building.

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