In this article the author discusses how changes in style in Zsigmond Kemény's novel The Fanatics can be construed as shifts in perspective from that of the narrator to that of a character in the novel. By suggesting a distance between the narrator and the narration, these shifts in style render it impossible to consolidate the text as the work of a single agency with an identifiable perspective. The narrating presence, itself a blend of formulas taken from other narratives, evanesces behind the conventions that comprise the text. Rather than offer itself as an account of events told from a particular perspective, the text emerges as a constant wavering between different modes of literary production.
The efforts of the
communist regime, following the Revolution of 1956, to channel discussion of
the events of the Revolution into a simplistic ideological opposition exerted
(and arguably continue to exert) a powerful influence on political discourse in
Hungary, in spite of numerous challenges issued against the validity of this
opposition by historians and political scientists. It is possible that
literature may offer new perspectives from which the terms that have exercised
such a constrictive influence on this discourse can be reevaluated. This
discussion of works of poetry by French, German, and American poets on the
events of 1956 in Hungary examines the ways in which not only these events, but
also the terms in which they were cast were perceived and thrown into question
by writers living outside Hungary, several of whom also wrote influential
essays on politics. Moreover, it considers how literary theory, specifically
because it makes language and the creation of meaning the object of its
inquiry, provides critical strategies through which the terms of this discourse
can be deconstructed and deflated, creating opportunities for new
(re)constructions of our understanding of these events.
This article examines the novels of mid-nineteenth-century Hungarian author Zsigmond Kemény. Falling roughly at the beginning of what is often referred to in critical literature as the century of psychological realism (1850-1950), Kemény's novels contain numerous examples of the various narrative techniques developed by authors throughout Europe as they called on language to serve both mimesis of action and mimesis of thought. His works can be cited as examples of a European wide shift in literature away from the narration of events towards the narration of thoughts and feelings. This corresponded to the emergence of the conception of the individual that accompanied the Romantic rejection of the Enlightenment faith in the universality of humankind. As texts drawn from one of the less familiar literary traditions of Europe, Kemény's novels constitute illustrations of the international nature of this trend. Moreover, they represent works that develop the distinctive potential of the novel as a genre the audience of which (the reader) has access not only to the actions and deeds, but also the thoughts and impressions of a subjective consciousness.
Though rarely made a subject of study, methods of literary translation may well reveal a great deal about the cultures in which they are practiced. In the case of the English canon, the prevalence of domesticating translation can be interpreted as an expression of the confidence of a colonial culture in the adequateness of its language as a means of universal expression. The use of translation as a means of introducing elements of style foreign to the target language in the Hungarian literary tradition, in contrast, suggests a culture more self-conscious of the particularity of its culture. A comparison of divergent approaches to translation in the Hungarian and English literary traditions offers a critical perspective from which to consider the self-conceptions of the two cultures.
Authors:D. Robertson, A. Schilk, K. Abel, E. Lepel, C. Thomas, S. Pratt, E. Cooper, P. Hartwig, and R. Killey
In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from lowlevel waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particulate, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species which appear to be predominately organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g.,60Co and106Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments have shown that significant fractions of the radionuclides are being transported in these groundwaters in the form of macromolecules having molecular weights ranging from less than 3,000 to 100,000.