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  • Author or Editor: Tibor Keresztély x
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EU transfers play a significant role in the long-term convergence of the Hungarian economy. The paper presents several channels through which transfers can be effective. First the modelling experiences and other techniques are summarised which can be useful to estimate the impact of EU transfers.Next we present the so-called ECO-TREND model developed in the ECOSTAT, suitable for both mid- and long-term forecasts and scenario analysis. The assessment of the model parameters has been based on standard statistical methods and on experts’ estimations. Such a model can be a useful decision-making tool for the economic policy. Finally, forecasts are presented for the Hungarian economy until 2020, which is completed by the analysis of three different macroeconomic scenarios based on different subsidy-absorption rates and different structures of expenditure.

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Effective decision making uses various databases including both micro and macro level datasets. In many cases it is a big challenge to ensure the consistency of the two levels. Different types of problems can occur and several methods can be used to solve them. The paper concentrates on the input alignment of the households’ income for microsimulation, which means refers to improving the elements of a micro data survey (EU-SILC) by using macro data from administrative sources. We use a combined micro-macro model called ECONS-TAX for this improvement. We also produced model projections until 2015 which is important because the official EU-SILC micro database will only be available in Hungary in the summer of 2017. The paper presents our estimations about the dynamics of income elements and the changes in income inequalities. Results show that the aligned data provides a different level of income inequality, but does not affect the direction of change from year to year. However, when we analyzed policy change, the use of aligned data caused larger differences both in income levels and in their dynamics.

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Authors: Andrea Győrffy, Mónika Keresztes, Vera Faigl, Vilmos Frenyó, Margit Kulcsár, Tibor Gaál, Miklós Mézes, Attila Zsarnovszky, Gyula Huszenicza and Tibor Bartha

In the regulation of energy metabolism, the liver plays an important role in the reinforcement of energy production. In periparturient cows the energy homeostasis turns into a negative energy balance that may shift the physiological regulation of energy balance towards pathological processes. Propylene glycol (PG), as a complementary source of energy used in the nutrition of dairy cows, alters systemic thyroid hormone economy; however, the exact mechanism through which highly glycogenic feed supplements impact liver metabolism is little known. Previous studies showed that only leptin receptors are expressed in the liver of cows, and now we report that leptin mRNA is expressed in the liver of cows as well. The present results show that the mRNA of leptin and its receptors are differentially modulated by the increased energy content of the feed consumed. Simultaneous changes in hepatic type I deiodinase activity suggest that hepatic modulation of the leptin system by PG supplementation may be mediated by an increased local thyroxine-triiodothyronine conversion. Since PG supplementation with simultaneous T4–T3 turnover and increased hepatic leptin- and short-form leptin receptor mRNA were not associated with a significant change in hepatic total lipid levels, it is suggested that the leptin system, directly or indirectly modulated by thyroid hormones, may represent a local defence mechanism to prevent fatty liver formation.

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Authors: Tibor Szarvas, Anita Csizmarik, Nikolett Nagy, Dávid Keresztes, Melinda Váradi, Zsófia Küronya, Péter Riesz and Péter Nyirády

Absztrakt:

A metasztatikus kasztrációrezisztens prosztatarák kezelésére az elmúlt években számos új, különböző hatásmechanizmusú gyógyszeres kezelés vált elérhetővé. Ez a fejlődés a terápiás döntéshozatalt egyre nehezebbé teszi. Az újabb kezelésekkel szemben is megfigyelhető az alapvonali, a szerzett és a keresztrezisztencia jelensége is. Ezért tehát az elsődleges terápia helyes megválasztása mellett, az azt követő vonalakban alkalmazott kezelések sorrendje és alkalmazásuk ideje is optimalizálásra szorul. Az újabb kezelésekkel kapcsolatos rezisztenciamechanizmusok egyre nagyobb mértékben válnak ismertté. Ezzel a terápiatervezés az eddigi empirikus – főleg a kipróbálásra építő – irányából egyre inkább a racionális – az adott daganat molekuláris sajátságait is figyelembe vevő –, személyre szabott kezelés irányába mozdul el. Ebben az összefoglaló közleményben ismertetjük azokat a rezisztenciamechanizmusokat, amelyek a metasztatikus kasztrációrezisztens prosztatarák kezelésében leggyakrabban használt három gyógyszerrel – docetaxel, abirateron és enzalutamid – kapcsolatosak. Többek között áttekintést nyújtunk a MDR- (multidrogrezisztens) fehérjéken keresztül megvalósuló, az androgénreceptor-, a Wnt-, a p53-szignálút, valamint a DNS hibajavító mechanizmusában részt vevő gének (mint például a BRCA és ATM) sérüléseivel összefüggésben kialakuló és a neuroendokrin differenciáció által kiváltott rezisztenciamechanizmusokról. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(20): 813–820.

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