The fiber intake is an important part of the human diet. The fiber-deficient nutrition may have long-term health problems. Oat (Avena sativa) is an excellent source of fiber and it has many health benefits due to its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Oats are used as flour and flakes in the food industry. The oat-flakes can be used in a variety of cakes, but it can be also consumed as breakfast cereals or porridge.
The objective of our work was to determine the effect of the sugar content and sugar types on main sensory parameters of oat-flakes biscuit. During the experiments, six different types of biscuit were made with the addition of white or brown sugar at three different concentration levels. The moisture content, color, and the frangibility of the samples were analyzed during the 4-day storage period. The sensory evaluation of the biscuit samples was also performed on the first day of storage.
The parameters of the rupture test and color measurement did not show significant changes during the storage, but the individual types of biscuits made of different types and quantities of sugar could be well distinguished. Results of sensory evaluation showed significant differences in frangibility, structure and stickiness parameters.
The objective of the work reported here was to determine changes in the moisture content, firmness characteristics, color attributes and NIR absorbance of two carrot cultivars during storage. There was a definite loss in the moisture content that caused changes in the firmness. This result shows that carrot firmness is very sensitive to the moisture content. The firmness — especially the cutting force — is a good characteristic for predicting changes in carrot moisture content during storage. The color characteristics — a* and b* — showed a slight change in the function of the moisture content. However, these color characteristics are suitable for distinguishing the phloem and xylem parts of carrot cultivars. There were not found definite changes in the NIR absorbance as the function of the moisture content. Consequently, the specific cutting force and the impact stiffness coefficient are good characteristics of the carrot moisture content and the mass reduction during storage under non-ideal conditions.
In the case of fruit syrups, consumers prefer thicker, deep-coloured ones because they remind them of good old homemade ones. Physical properties – as viscosity, colour, refractive index, soluble solid content (SSC), and electrical impedance - of fruit syrups flavoured with raspberry or orange juice were determined. The change of the measured physical properties was determined in three different experiments: 1. evaluating the effect of sugar and sweetener content 2. evaluating the effect of fruit juice composition and 3. evaluating the effect of sugar content on syrups containing raspberry or orange juice only. Variations in fruit and sugar content had a definite effect on the physical properties of squashes. Viscosity, SSC value, refractive index, and impedance magnitude increased with increasing sugar content and decreased with replacement of sugar with sweeteners although colour characteristics were defined mostly by the colorant added to the squash. Changes in the fruit composition of syrups could influence viscosity, refractive index, and SSC values but the magnitude of impedance showed little changes for all samples. The characteristics of squashes containing only raspberry or orange juice and different sugar content did not follow any trends, which emphasized that additives had a significant effect on the physical properties.
The objective of our experiment was to investigate the rheological properties of a compound coating depending on the pre-treatment temperature regimes.
Compound coating samples were measured at six different temperatures with 2 °C resolution between 40 and 50 °C. One part of melted samples was measured by RV1 rotational rheometer at the actual melting temperatures and the other part of melted samples was filled into 9 × 9 × 9 mm cubes molds. These cubes were cooled 24 h in freezer (−18 °C) and next day the samples were warmed to room temperature for 3 hours with different temperature combinations. The solid cubes were measured with Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) test by SMS TA-XTplus Texture Analyzer at room temperature.
Results show the effect of pre-treatment on the viscosity of the coating. Furthermore, significant differences were found among the samples cooled with different cooling methods. Our results stress the importance of the correct handling of the materials for confectioners.
This research aims to determine whether the treatment of food products in a microwave electromagnetic field is advantageous or disadvantageous compared to conventional technologies. In household practice, microwave energy transfer is used mostly for heating. One of the most important tangible benefits of microwave heat treatment is that it causes less damage to the nutritional value of the product due to its speed.
Despite the fact that microwave technology was introduced more than 70 years ago, it is still not clear whether its application results in equivalent products in terms of quality and food safety.
This study demonstrates how heat-treated wines with microwave energy transmission and with convective heating in a thermostatic water bath are affected. In the white, rose and red wine samples pasteurized at a temperature of 74 ± 0.5 °C, significant differences between the two heating methods regarding colour characteristics could be indicated.
Gluten-free (GF) breads are often described with low quality, rapidly staling, dry mouthfeel and crumbling texture attributes. In lack of recent texture profile data on commercially available, preservative-free, freshly-baked GF bread, this study aimed to compare different types of GF products with their wheat-based counterparts during a 4-day-long storage test. Texture analysis data showed that GF loaves performed better than or comparable to the wheat-based ones in hardness, springiness and cohesiveness. Among sensorial properties mouth-feel, softness and aroma were evaluated as significantly better or similar for GF versus wheat-based products. GF cob had a saltier taste, which reduced the flavour experience. Both the texture results of the storage test and sensory data showed that the quality of GF bread products improved in recent years; they stayed comparable with their wheat-based counterparts even during a 4-day-long storage period.
Colour is one of the most important phenotypic characters of the table grape cultivars, which has high importance in the consumer's preference. This morphological trait is variable and not consistently uniform within a cultivar or even a bunch. Between harvest and consumption fruits are stored for several weeks which time is influencing the colour of the berry. In this study 10 grapevine accessions (Agaphante, KM98, Korai piros veltelini, Korona, Pinot gris, Pozsonyi, Ros de Minis, Tramini piros, T9, Zenit) were collected from the germplasm collection of the Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology of the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre of Kecskemét. The samples were investigated by ColorLite Sph850 spectrophotometer. The colour of 30 berries per accessions were measured in 3 replicates per berry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the colour and the effect of cold storage. L✻, a✻, b✻ values of each accessions were evaluated after the sampling and until a visible reduction in the quality of the grapes, at most 4 weeks with 1-week intervals from the harvest. Results showed that there is a significant difference among the cultivars in the L∗, a∗, b∗ values. The length of cold storage also has a significant effect on the colour of the accessions as the values are changing in some cases of the 1-week storage period.
People have recently started to pay more attention to the healthier lifestyle, which also includes the consumption of more natural and less processed food products. Honey as one of the most often used natural sweeteners has also been reconsidered and more commonly used. However, honey has also been the target of food adulteration due to its emerging use and relatively high price. Therefore, there is an increasing need to develop rapid evaluation methods for the identification of honey from different sources. Experiments have been performed with 79 authentic honey samples of different floral and geographical origins, mainly from Hungary. The standard analytical parameters used to characterize the nutritional values of honey such as antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, ash content, pH, conductivity have been determined. The samples were also analyzed with a benchtop near infrared (NIR) spectrometer to record their NIR spectra. The data acquired with NIR spectroscopy measurements were evaluated with various univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results gained with a limited sample set show that NIR spectroscopy might be useful for the identification of floral and geographical origin of honey samples. Further experiments are proposed to build a robust database, which could support the use of NIR spectroscopy as a quick alternative for honey authentication.