Authors:Li Ying Yang, Ting Yue, Jie Lan Ding, and Tao Han
Using a collection of papers gathered from the Web of Science, and defining disciplines by the JCR classification, this paper compares the disciplinary structure of the G7 countries (representing high S&T level countries) and the BRIC countries (representing fast breaking countries in S&T) by using bibliometric methods. It discusses the similarity and the balance of their disciplinary structure. We found that: (1) High S&T level countries have a similar national disciplinary structure; (2) In recent years the disciplinary structure of the BRIC countries has become more and more similar to that of the G7 countries; (3) The disciplinary structure of the G7 countries is more balanced than that of the BRIC countries (4) In the G7 countries more emphasis goes to the life sciences, while BRIC countries focus on physics, chemistry, mathematics and engineering.
Authors:Mei-E Yue, Qiaoyan Lin, Jie Xu, and Ting-Fu Jiang
A rapid, simple, and sensitive method has been developed for the analysis of pyrethroid herbicides in fruits by using headspace in-tube microextraction (HS-ITME) coupled with reverse-flow micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (RF-MECC). In the newly developed method, by placing a capillary filled with background electrolyte (BGE) of RF-MECC in the HS above the sample solution, the pyrethroid herbicides were extracted into the acceptor phase in the capillary. After extraction, electrophoresis of the extracts in the capillary was carried out. The influence of some essential BGE components such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and organic modifiers concentrations was investigated. Extraction parameters were also systematically investigated, including the extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, and volume of the sample solution. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors for three pyrethroids were 309, 133, and 288, respectively. The proposed method provided a good linearity, low limits of detection (below 1.00 ng/mL), and good repeatability of the extractions (relative standard deviations [RSDs] below 7.83%, n = 6). The fruit samples were analyzed by the proposed method, and the obtained results indicated that the proposed method provides acceptable recoveries and precisions.
Authors:Qiuju Zhou, Ronald Rousseau, Liying Yang, Ting Yue, and Guoliang Yang
Building on the ideas of Stirling (J R Soc Interface, 4(15), 707–719, ) and Rafols and Meyer (Scientometrics, 82(2), 263–287, ), we borrow models of genetic distance based on gene diversity and propose a general conceptual framework to investigate the diversity within and among systems and the similarity between systems. This framework can be used to reveal the relationship of systems weighted by the similarity of the corresponding categories. Application of the framework to scientometrics is explored to evaluate the balance of national disciplinary structures, and the homogeneity of disciplinary structures between countries.
Authors:Kun-Yue Chen, Wei-Ting Chen, Chen-Wei Chiu, Tsung-Chih Wu, and Chi-Min Shu
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO), which has highly reactive and exothermically unstable characteristics, has been extensively employed in the chemical industries. It has also caused many thermal explosions and runaway reaction accidents in manufacturing processes during the last three decades in Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and China. The goal of this study was to simulate thermal upset by MEKPO for an emergency response. Vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was used to determine the thermokinetics of 20 mass% MEKPO. Data of thermokinetics and hazard behaviors were employed to simulate thermal explosion in three types of vessel containing 20 mass% MEKPO under various scenarios at the same volume. To compare and appraise the difference of important parameters, such as maximum temperature (Tmax), maximum pressure (Pmax), etc. This was necessary and useful for investigating the emergency response procedure associated with industrial applications.
Authors:Ting Yuan, Xue-Feng Guo, Si-Yue Shao, Rong-Miao An, Jin Wang, and Jia Sun
Bamboo leaves extract (BLE) has a variety of physiological functions such as antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and blood fat reduction activities and the flavonoids of bamboo leaves are the major active constituents. To profile the flavonoids in the complex BLE, a rapid and sensitive analytical method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was developed for the structural identification of the flavonoids in Bambusa chungii leaves extract using accurate mass measurements and characteristic fragmentation patterns. After separation on an Agilent SB-C18 Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD) column (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 1.8 μm) by gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase, the sample was analysed by ESI-QTOF-MS/MS in the negative mode. A total of 22 flavonoids were detected, and eight of these were identified by comparison with reference standards, while the other fourteen were tentatively identified according to their MS/MS data. The main fragmentation pathways of flavonoid C-glycosides (compounds 1, 5 and 10), flavonoid di-C,O-glycosides (compound 4), flavonoid di-C-glycosides (compound 7) and flavonoid C,O-di-glycosides (compounds 2 and 14) are shown in this article. This is the first report on the analysis of the flavonoids in the extract of B. chungii leaves. The present work demonstrates that UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS is an efficient technique for identifying multiple flavonoids of BLE.