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Authors: Paola Scarpa, Beatrice Ruggerone, Sara Gironi, Tiziana Vitiello and Saverio Paltrinieri

Abstract

In view of the enormous variability of dog breeds, breed-specific reference intervals (RIs) are recommended for use in veterinary clinical decision-making. The aim of this study was to determine whether RIs of the general canine population may be applied to the Italian Greyhound (Piccoli Levrieri Italiani or PLI), and to generate breed-specific RIs, where appropriate. Sixty-three privately owned clinically healthy fasted dogs were examined. Routine haematology and biochemistry were performed on 58 enrolled patients using the ADVIA 120 haematology analyzer and the Cobas Mira system, respectively. Changes in haematological and biochemical parameters depending on sex, age and attitude (resting vs. running dogs) were investigated. The results of PLI were compared with the RIs of the general canine population. In those cases in which these RIs were not validated, new RIs were generated according to the guidelines of the American Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Pre-existing RIs were considered valid based on the recommendations by the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). RIs were higher for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), cell haemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) and lower for large unstained cells (LUC). A wider discrepancy between pre-existing and newly established RIs was found for some ADVIA parameters regarding red blood cell (RBC) or reticulocyte morphology. For total protein and cholesterol the new RIs were wider than the pre-existing ones, while albumin, calcium and iron were higher. This study suggests that most of the RIs published in veterinary textbooks cannot be validated for PLIs.

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Authors: Paola Scarpa, Beatrice Ruggerone, Sara Gironi, Tiziana Vitiello and Saverio Paltrinieri

Abstract

In view of the enormous variability of dog breeds, breed-specific reference intervals (RIs) are recommended for use in veterinary clinical decision-making. The aim of this study was to determine whether RIs of the general canine population may be applied to the Italian Greyhound (Piccoli Levrieri Italiani or PLI), and to generate breed-specific RIs, where appropriate. Sixty-three privately owned clinically healthy fasted dogs were examined. Routine haematology and biochemistry were performed on 58 enrolled patients using the ADVIA 120 haematology analyzer and the Cobas Mira system, respectively. Changes in haematological and biochemical parameters depending on sex, age and attitude (resting vs. running dogs) were investigated. The results of PLI were compared with the RIs of the general canine population. In those cases in which these RIs were not validated, new RIs were generated according to the guidelines of the American Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Pre-existing RIs were considered valid based on the recommendations by the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). RIs were higher for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), cell haemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) and lower for large unstained cells (LUC). A wider discrepancy between pre-existing and newly established RIs was found for some ADVIA parameters regarding red blood cell (RBC) or reticulocyte morphology. For total protein and cholesterol the new RIs were wider than the pre-existing ones, while albumin, calcium and iron were higher. This study suggests that most of the RIs published in veterinary textbooks cannot be validated for PLIs.

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In order to define the normal composition of canine amniotic fluid and to detect differences between surviving and non-surviving newborn puppies, the present study determined the uric acid, glucose, lactate and creatinine concentrations and the lactate to creatinine ratio in amniotic fluids collected during elective Caesarean section from small-sized purebred bitches. The possible relationship between newborn survival and the studied parameters, as well as the effects of maternal parity, fetal gender and Apgar score were assessed. The study enrolled 27 small-sized purebred bitches submitted to elective Caesarean section at term. After opening the fetal membranes, amniotic fluid samples were collected aseptically from the amniotic sac of each fetus. The data obtained from 74 amniotic fluid samples collected from 27 bitches showed that amniotic glucose concentration was lower (P < 0.05) in non-surviving than in surviving puppies. Within the normal, surviving puppies, amniotic glucose concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in male than in female newborns, and the lactate/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in multiparous than in primiparous bitches (P < 0.05). These preliminary results demonstrate the relevance of amniotic glucose, but not of uric acid, lactate, creatinine and the lactate to creatinine ratio for detecting puppies at risk of death immediately after birth.

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