This paper presents a simple three-sector model that seeks to establish links between structural change in employment and the level of economic development. The model is a modified version of that of Rowthorn - Wells (1987). The theoretical analysis is supplemented with simple econometric tests which illustrate how the modified Rowthorn - Wells model can be used (i) to motivate empirical estimates of the link between the level of development and structures of employment, and (ii) to illustrate structural distortions under command economies.
Authors:Kate Bishop, Igor Filatotchev, and Tomasz Mickiewicz
Using a data set for the 162 largest Hungarian firms during the period of 1994-1999, this paper explores the determinants of equity shares held by both foreign investors and Hungarian corporations. Evidence is found for a post-privatisation evolution towards more homogeneous equity structures, where dominant categories of Hungarian and foreign owners aim at achieving controlling stakes. In addition, focusing on firm-level characteristics we find that exporting firms attract foreign owners who acquire controlling equity stakes. Similarly, firm-size measurements are positively associated with the presence of foreign investors. However, they are negatively associated with 100% foreign ownership, possibly because the marginal costs of acquiring additional equity are growing with the size of the assets. The results are interpreted within the framework of the existing theory. In particular, following Demsetz and Lehn (1985) and Demsetz and Villalonga (2001) we argue that equity should not be treated as an exogenous variable. As for specific determinants of equity levels, we focus on informational asymmetries and (unobserved) ownership-specific characteristics of foreign investors and Hungarian investors.
Authors:Tomasz Mickiewicz, Kate Bishop, and Urmas Varblane
To investigate investment behaviour the present study applies panel data techniques, in particular the Arellano-Bond (1991) GMM estimator, based on data on Estonian manufacturing firms from the period 1995-1999. We employ the model of optimal capital accumulation in the presence of convex adjustment costs. The main research findings are that domestic companies seem to be financially more constrained than those where foreign investors are present, and also, smaller firms are more constrained than their larger counterparts.