Authors:Narendra A. Gajbhiye, Jayanti Makasana, Tushar Dhanani and Raju Saravanan
Aegle marmelos Correa (Bael tree) is a medicinal fruit tree, widely used for healing purposes in various systems of medicines. Coumarins and alkaloids present in various parts of bael tree including roots and fruit pulp are the primary active constituents implicated for its biological activities. An efficient liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization—tandem mass spectrometry (LC—ESI—MS/MS) method was developed for identification and simultaneous determination of four coumarin derivatives, namely, umbelliferone, psoralene, marmin, and imperatorin, and an alkaloid, skimmianine, in root and stem bark of A. marmelos. The chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on Altima C18 (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) column using methanol and 0.1% acetic acid in water (54:46, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic conditions. The LC–MS/MS parameters were optimized in the positive ionization mode using electrospray ionization source. The quantification of the analytes was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions, umbelliferone (m/z 163.1 → 107.1), psoralene (m/z 187.2 → 131.1), marmin (m/z 333.5 → 163.2), imperatorin (m/z 271.1 → 203.1), and skimmianine (m/z 260.1 → 227.0). The extraction method was standardized for optimum yield of coumarin derivatives and the alkaloid in different extraction solvents. Higher yield of the analytes was found in methanolic extracts in comparisons to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water. The method was validated for linear range, intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy. The distribution of coumarin derivatives and an alkaloid was found to vary significantly in different plant samples, and their concentration was much higher in roots as compared to stem bark.
Authors:Azazahemad A. Kureshi, Chirag Dholakiya, Tabaruk Hussain, Amit Mirgal, Siddhesh P. Salvi, Pritam C. Barua, Madhumita Talukdar, C. Beena, Ashish Kar, T. John Zachariah, Premlata Kumari, Tushar Dhanani, Raghuraj Singh and Satyanshu Kumar
Xanthones are well recognized as chemotaxonomic markers for the plants belonging to the genus Garcinia. Xanthones have many interesting pharmacological properties. Efficient extraction and rapid liquid chromatography methods are essentially required for qualitative and quantitative determination of xanthones in their natural sources. In the present investigation, fruit rinds extracts of 8 Garcinia species from India, were prepared with solvents of varying polarity. Identification and quantification of 3 xanthones, namely, α-mangostin, β-mangostin, and γ-mangostin in these extracts were carried out using a rapid and validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detection (UHPLC–PDA) method at 254 nm. γ-Mangostin (3.97 ± 0.05 min) was first eluted, and it was followed by α-mangostin (4.68 ± 0.03 min) and β-mangostin (5.60 ± 0.04 min). The calibration curve for α-mangostin, β-mangostin, and γ- mangostin was linear in the concentration range 0.781–100 μg/mL. α-Mangostin was quantified in all 4 extracts of Garcinia mangostana. Its content (%) in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of G. mangostana was 10.36 ± 0.10, 4.88 ± 0.01, 3.98 ± 0.004, and 0.044 ± 0.002, respectively. However, the content of α-mangostin was below the limit of detection or limit of quantification in the extracts of other Garcinia species. Similarly, β-mangostin was quantified only in hexane (1.17 ± 0.01%), chloroform (0.39 ± 0.07%), and ethyl acetate (0.28 ± 0.03%) extracts of G. mangostana. γ-Mangostin was quantified in all 4 extracts of G. mangostana. Its content (%) in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of G. mangostana was 0.84 ± 0.01, 1.04 ± 0.01, 0.63 ± 0.04, and 0.15 ± 0.01, respectively. γ-Mangostin was also quantified in hexane (0.09 ± 0.01), chloroform (0.05 ± 0.01), and ethyl acetate (0.03 ± 0.01) extracts of G. cowa, ethyl acetate extract of G. cambogia (0.02 ± 0.01), G. indica (0.03 ± 0.01), and G. loniceroides (0.07 ± 0.01). Similarly, γ-mangostin was quantified in 3 extracts of G. morella, namely, hexane (0.03 ± 0.01), chloroform (0.04 ± 0.01), and methanol (0.03 ± 0.01). In the case of G. xanthochymus, γ-mangostin was quantified in chloroform (0.03 ± 0.001) extract only. α-Mangostin and β-mangostin were not detected in any of 4 extracts of G. pedunculata.