Authors:K. Arslan, U. De, C. Murathan, and A. Yildiz
The object of the present paper is to study a type of Riemannian manifolds called generalized recurrent manifolds. We have
constructed two concrete examples of such a manifold whose scalar curvature is non-zero non-constant. Some other properties
have been considered. Among others it is shown that on a generalized recurrent manifold with constant scalar curvature, Weyl-semisymmetry
and semisymmetry are equivalent. Sufficient condition for a generalized recurrent manifold to be a special quasi Einstein
manifold is obtained.
Authors:M. A. L. da Silva, M. C. M. de Almeida, and J. U. Delgado
An approach for half-life determination using the reference source method associated with gamma-spectrometry with a Ge detector is presented. The method reduces the contribution of the type B component of the total uncertainty. The independence of the method regarding the instrumental interferences or radiochemical impurities was evidenced. However, there are some limitations when the method is applied for a genetically-related impurity with the same or very similar energy to that of the radionuclide to be measured, e.g., if 99Mo in a 99mTc sample is present. The measured half-life values are in good agreement with those of the literature and the associated uncertainties are lower than 0.1%.
Authors:R. Olmo Gilabert, A. F. Navia, G. De La Cruz-Agüero, J. C. Molinero, U. Sommer, and M. Scotti
Anthropic activities impact ecosystems worldwide thus contributing to the rapid erosion of biodiversity. The failure of traditional strategies targeting single species highlighted ecosystems as the most suitable scale to plan biodiversity management. Network analysis represents an ideal tool to model interactions in ecosystems and centrality indices have been extensively applied to quantify the structural and functional importance of species in food webs. However, many network studies fail in deciphering the ecological mechanisms that lead some species to occupy the most central positions in food webs. To address this question, we built a high-resolution food web of the Gulf of California and quantified species position using 15 centrality indices and the trophic level. We then modelled the values of each index as a function of traits and other attributes (e.g., habitat). We found that body size and mobility are the best predictors of indices that characterize species importance at local, meso- and global scale, especially in presence of data accounting for energy direction. This result extends previous findings that illustrated how a restricted set of traitaxes can predict whether two species interact in food webs. In particular, we show that traits can also help understanding the way species are affected by and mediate indirect effects. The traits allow focusing on the processes that shape the food web, rather than providing case-specific indications as the taxonomy-based approach. We suggest that future network studies should consider the traits to explicitly identify the causal relationships that link anthropic impacts to role changes of species in food webs.
Authors:R. Hilfiker, J. Berghausen, F. Blatter, A. Burkhard, S. De Paul, B. Freiermuth, A. Geoffroy, U. Hofmeier, C. Marcolli, B. Siebenhaar, M. Szelagiewicz, A. Vit, and M. von Raumer
Crystal structure (polymorphism) as well as crystal shape (morphology) and size have a huge practical and commercial impact
on active substances all the way from research to manufacture of the final product. For an optimal development process, it
is important to have an integrated approach to these issues ranging from a systematic polymorphism screening to a controlled
scale-up of the crystallization process. The polymorphism program has to be tailored according to the development stage. Particularly
suitable for an early development stage is a high-throughput polymorphism screening, which is the basis for a more thorough
investigation if the product proceeds further in development. Such a comprehensive polymorphism investigation involves further
crystallization experiments and extensive physicochemical characterization of the various forms. In this article the high-throughput
polymorphism screening method that we have developed is described. Using carbamazepine as an example, the power of this high-throughput
polymorphism screening system is demonstrated. Not only were all published forms found, but also new forms were identified.
In the second part of the article, important considerations for crystallization optimization are discussed, again using the
example of carbamazepine.