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Abstract  

The object of the present paper is to study a type of Riemannian manifolds called generalized recurrent manifolds. We have constructed two concrete examples of such a manifold whose scalar curvature is non-zero non-constant. Some other properties have been considered. Among others it is shown that on a generalized recurrent manifold with constant scalar curvature, Weyl-semisymmetry and semisymmetry are equivalent. Sufficient condition for a generalized recurrent manifold to be a special quasi Einstein manifold is obtained.

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Summary  

An approach for half-life determination using the reference source method associated with gamma-spectrometry with a Ge detector is presented. The method reduces the contribution of the type B component of the total uncertainty. The independence of the method regarding the instrumental interferences or radiochemical impurities was evidenced. However, there are some limitations when the method is applied for a genetically-related impurity with the same or very similar energy to that of the radionuclide to be measured, e.g., if 99Mo in a 99mTc sample is present. The measured half-life values are in good agreement with those of the literature and the associated uncertainties are lower than 0.1%.

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Community Ecology
Authors:
R. Olmo Gilabert
,
A. F. Navia
,
G. De La Cruz-Agüero
,
J. C. Molinero
,
U. Sommer
, and
M. Scotti

Abstract

Anthropic activities impact ecosystems worldwide thus contributing to the rapid erosion of biodiversity. The failure of traditional strategies targeting single species highlighted ecosystems as the most suitable scale to plan biodiversity management. Network analysis represents an ideal tool to model interactions in ecosystems and centrality indices have been extensively applied to quantify the structural and functional importance of species in food webs. However, many network studies fail in deciphering the ecological mechanisms that lead some species to occupy the most central positions in food webs. To address this question, we built a high-resolution food web of the Gulf of California and quantified species position using 15 centrality indices and the trophic level. We then modelled the values of each index as a function of traits and other attributes (e.g., habitat). We found that body size and mobility are the best predictors of indices that characterize species importance at local, meso- and global scale, especially in presence of data accounting for energy direction. This result extends previous findings that illustrated how a restricted set of traitaxes can predict whether two species interact in food webs. In particular, we show that traits can also help understanding the way species are affected by and mediate indirect effects. The traits allow focusing on the processes that shape the food web, rather than providing case-specific indications as the taxonomy-based approach. We suggest that future network studies should consider the traits to explicitly identify the causal relationships that link anthropic impacts to role changes of species in food webs.

Open access
Imaging
Authors:
Elias V. Wolf
,
Chiara Gnasso
,
U. Joseph Schoepf
,
Moritz C. Halfmann
,
Jim O'Doherty
,
Emese Zsarnoczay
,
Akos Varga-Szemes
,
Tilman Emrich
, and
Nicola Fink

Abstract

Purpose

To compare intra-individual percentage diameter stenosis (PDS) measurements of coronary artery stenoses between energy-integrating detector computed tomography (EID-CT) and a clinical photon-counting detector computed tomography (PCD-CT) systems using similar acquisition and reconstruction settings.

Methods

Patients (n = 23, mean age of 65 ± 12.1 years, out of these 16 (69.6%) male) were imaged on a conventional EID- and a clinical PCD-CT system with a median of 5.5 (3.0–12.5) days apart. Sequential CCTA scans were acquired and reconstructed using similar settings, including a vascular Bv36 kernel, a tube voltage of 110 kVp for EID-CT vs 120 kVp for PCD-CT, a slice thickness of 0.5 for EID-CT vs 0.6 for PCD-CT, and an iterative reconstruction strength of 3 on EID-CT vs a virtual monoenergetic reconstruction at 55 keV and quantum iterative reconstruction level of 3 on PCD-CT. Radiation dose, contrast volume, and injection parameters were matched as similarly as possible between the systems. PDS measurements were performed according to the coronary artery disease reporting and data system (CAD-RADS) by two trained readers and compared between the different modalities using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Spearman correlation, and Bland-Altman analysis.

Results

PCD-CT measured significantly lower PDS values than EID-CT [PDSEID-CT: 45.1% (35.1%–64.0%) vs. PDSPCD-CT 44.2% (32.4%–61.0%), P < 0.0001]. This difference led to a mean bias of 1.8 (LoA −3.0/6.5) with an excellent ICC (0.99) value among EID- and PCD-CT. The mean intra-individual deviation between the examinations was 1.8% between the scanners. This led to CAD-RADS re-classification in 3/23 cases (13.0%, new-lower class) for the first reader, and in 4/23 cases (13.0%, new-lower and 4.4%, new-higher class) for the second reader. Inter-reader agreement between the two readers for each stenosis was very strong (ICC = 0.98).

Conclusions

Coronary artery stenosis measurements from PCD-CT correlate strongly to EID-CT-based measurements, despite the tendency of the measurement from PCD-CT being lower. This difference led to a change in CAD-RADS classification in 17.4% of patients. The effects on clinical decision-making, downstream testing, and prognosis have to be evaluated in future studies.

Open access
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
R. Hilfiker
,
J. Berghausen
,
F. Blatter
,
A. Burkhard
,
S. De Paul
,
B. Freiermuth
,
A. Geoffroy
,
U. Hofmeier
,
C. Marcolli
,
B. Siebenhaar
,
M. Szelagiewicz
,
A. Vit
, and
M. von Raumer

Abstract  

Crystal structure (polymorphism) as well as crystal shape (morphology) and size have a huge practical and commercial impact on active substances all the way from research to manufacture of the final product. For an optimal development process, it is important to have an integrated approach to these issues ranging from a systematic polymorphism screening to a controlled scale-up of the crystallization process. The polymorphism program has to be tailored according to the development stage. Particularly suitable for an early development stage is a high-throughput polymorphism screening, which is the basis for a more thorough investigation if the product proceeds further in development. Such a comprehensive polymorphism investigation involves further crystallization experiments and extensive physicochemical characterization of the various forms. In this article the high-throughput polymorphism screening method that we have developed is described. Using carbamazepine as an example, the power of this high-throughput polymorphism screening system is demonstrated. Not only were all published forms found, but also new forms were identified. In the second part of the article, important considerations for crystallization optimization are discussed, again using the example of carbamazepine.

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