The notions of semi C-reducible and S4-like Finsler spaces have been introduced by Matsumoto and Shibata (). The object of the present paper is to study some properties of the hypersurfaces immersed in semi-C-reducible and S4-like Finsler spaces. It has been proved that a hypersurface of semi-C-reducible Finsler space is a semi-C-reducible while the condition, under with a hypersurface of S4-like Finsler space will be a S-4like space, has been obtained. The condition under which a hypersurface of semi-C-reducible Landsberg space will be a Landsberg space has also been obtained. After using the so called “T-condition” (Matsumoto ) we have discussed the condition under which a hypersurface of a semi-C-reducible Finsler spaceFn satisfying T-condition will also satisfy T-condition.
Geophysical data are specific physical responses of geological formations distributed over an area. These data are normally the physical parameters such as density, velocity, resistivity, susceptibility etc. of geological sources and hence bring a pattern of geological structures. It is conceived accordingly that this pattern recognition of such geophysical data will throw light on the spatial distribution and physical attributes of their geological sources. The well logging method considered as one of the geophysical method for the exploration of hydrocarbon, coal and base-metals, also has a strong role in finding the location and evaluation of geological resources.A novel approach known as Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System technique (ANFIS) is made to identify stratigraphy of Prydz Bay basin, east Antarctica. A geological stratum in terms of 1D model is made using datasets obtained from this area. The 1D model deduced as an ANFIS result is able to make geological sense of even additional thin sand sandwiched between clayey silt strata seams which unable to be resolved by other conventional methods. The analysed ANFIS results deduced to map horizons for hydrocarbon prospecting is verified with known coring datasets. These results are encouraging and provide stable and consistent solutions.
From an analysis of bibliographic data on 430 journal articles on liquid crystals covered inPhysics Abstracts 1976 and the 4729 citations to them up to the end of 1987, we have identified the geographic origin, the prominent institutions, language and journal-wise distribution of the papers, the citedness of these papers, and the distribution of citations as a time series for the highly cited papers. We have also analysed the 126 papers published by authors from India, Canada, Australia, Israel, Japan and the United Kingdom and covered inPhysics Abstracts 1978, and the 1154 citations to them up to 1987. Unlike in most other high tech areas of physics, in LC research the difference in performance between the USA and the other leading countries is not very pronounced. Publication data from 1976, 1978 and 1985 reveal that LC literature is on the rise and that the percentage share of the Soviet Union is rising fast and that of the USA is on the decline.
Assessment of the qualitative losses in different varieties of sorghum following
Walker infestation revealed the significant decrease
dry matter digestibility of whole plant, leaves and stem by about 6.0, 3.5 and 3.0 per cent, respectively at more than 60 per cent infestation level and was mainly due to the corresponding increase in tannin content. The fibre components (NDF and ADF) were acting as an additional factor in reducing the dry matter digestibility. The dry fodder yield was also reduced by 46 to 53 per cent in different varieties of sorghum with an increase in infestation level from 0 to >60 per cent. The stem of all the varieties was more fibreous than the leaves as it had high content of NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin. Leaves on the other hand had high amount of protein, total soluble sugars and reducing sugars than stem and were therefore more digestible than stem.
The phenolic profile and specific activity of oxidative enzymes in sorghum leaves and stem resistant and susceptible to
(Swinhoe) were analyzed at 45 and 60 days after germination. Resistant varieties had higher content of total phenols, o-dihydric phenols, flavanols and tannins than the susceptible varieties at both the stages of plant growth and the concentration of these biomolecules increased after infestation as well as with plant age in both sets of varieties. Moreover, resistant varieties exhibited higher specific activity of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase in their leaves and stem in comparison to the corresponding activities in susceptible ones. Peroxidase activity was several folds than the polyphenol oxidase. Healthy leaves of susceptible varieties showed higher catalase activity in comparison with resistant ones at day 45 and this trend was reversed at day 60. Role of phenolic compounds and oxidative enzymes particularly the peroxidase in determining resistance against stem borer has been high lighted.
Authors:U. Singh, A. Krishna, and Kunwar Bhatnagar
Detailed reproductive pattern and associated endocrine characteristics have been documented in only a few species of order Chiroptera. The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in body weight, serum insulin, leptin, androstenedione and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations during annual ovarian cycle in the sheath-tailed bat,
. Bats were sampled over three years. Leptin, a satiety hormone produced primarily by adipose tissue, provides information to feeding center of the brain about nutritional status, fat mass, appetite and energy expenditure. The circulating concentration of leptin begins to increase from October and attains a peak in December. The peak serum leptin concentration coincides with body weight in November before winter dormancy in December. The serum leptin levels dissociate from body weight during December. The other peaks of serum leptin levels coincide with late stages of the two successive pregnancies. The serum insulin concentration begins to increase from September and attains a peak during December. The insulin concentration remains low from January to August. The circulating androstenedione concentration begins to increase in October, reaching a peak in December. This increase in androstenedione concentration correlated with the period of heavy accumulation of abdominal fat and increase in body weight. There was a sharp decline in androstenedione concentration and body weight in January. The serum LH shows peaks, in November, coinciding with the peaked body weight, the other peaks in January and May, coinciding with ovulation for the two successive pregnancies. The high leptin and insulin levels might be responsible for the maintenance of reproductive response and gonadal function during adverse environmental condition in the winter, while high androstenedione, and associated body weight along with LH might be responsible for maintaining basal gonadal function. We conclude that high leptin, androstenedione and insulin serve, as signal for the reproductive functions in that sufficient body fat are available to meet the caloric demands and maintain normal function during adverse winter conditions.