The effects of clinoptilolite on milk copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and iron (Fe) concentrations, proinflammatory cytokine responses, oxidative stress status, whole blood cell counts and liver and kidney functions were investigated in dairy cows exhibiting no signs of any kind of toxicity. Clinoptilolite was added to the feed at a dose of 200 mg kg−1 body weight in the clinoptilolite-treated group (n = 14), but was not added to the feed in the control group (n = 7). In the milk samples (n = 21) collected before the experiment, the Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Fe values were 0.021 ± 0.020, 0.104 ± 0.01, 3.42 ± 0.32, <0.000, 0.56 ± 0.34 ppm, respectively. At the end of the experiment (30th day), among the elements measured in milk samples collected from the clinoptilolite-treated group, only the Pb value (0.076 ± 0.01) was lower than the 0-day value of the clinoptilolite-treated group (0.104 ± 0.01) and the 30th-day value of the control group (0.105 ± 0.01) was found to be statistically lower. Changes determined at the end of clinoptilolite application in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), albumin, glucose, urea and urine creatinine/urine total protein (uCr/uTP) values, which were interpreted as the effect of lead exposure before the trial, were evaluated as the positive effect of clinoptilolite. It was concluded that the addition of clinoptilolite to the feed in dairy cows caused a significant decrease in the amount of Pb in milk, and positive changes in the parameters related to oxidative stress in serum and in parameters related to renal function.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri E81 (LRE) probiotic supplementation on heat stress responses in chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar). The birds were divided into two groups, one of which was exposed to heat stress (HS). Within each group, four subgroups, each including 64 birds, were created for the three treatment doses (200, 400 or 600 mg/kg) of LRE and the control. The experiment was started with day-old birds, kept at a temperature of 25 °C or 37 °C. After a 7-day adjustment period, the LRE supplementation lasted for 35 days. The levels of different adipokines, including visfatin (VF), adiponectin (ADP), chemerin (CHEM), as well as the concentration of plasma citrulline (CIT) and the levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood were measured at 21 and 42 days of age. A significant correlation (P < 0.01) was found between LRE supplementation and the decrease in serum VF, ADP, CIT, T3 and T4 levels in partridges exposed to HS. On the other hand, no significant relationship was found between LRE supplementation and the serum CHEM and TSH levels (P > 0.05). We concluded that the addition of 600 mg/kg LRE is beneficial in preventing intestinal damage and inflammation provoked by HS.