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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Sina Zadra
,
Gallus Bischof
,
Bettina Besser
,
Anja Bischof
,
Christian Meyer
,
Ulrich John
, and
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf

Background and aims

Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA.

Methods

Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires.

Results

Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p < .001). In males with IA, Cluster C personality disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Discussion and conclusion: Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment.

Open access

Background and aims

Internet Addiction (IA) has consistently been related to comorbid psychiatric disorders and lowered self-esteem. However, most studies relied on self-report questionnaires using non-representative samples. This study aims to analyze the relative impact of self-esteem and comorbid psychopathology with lifetime IA in a population-based sample of excessive Internet users using clinical diagnoses assessed in a personal interview.

Methods

The sample of this study is based on a general population survey. Using the Compulsive Internet Use Scale, all participants with elevated Internet use scores were selected and invited to a follow-up interview. Current DSM-5 criteria for Internet gaming disorder were rephrased to apply to all Internet activities. Out of 196 participants, 82 fulfilled the criteria for IA. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale.

Results

Self-esteem is significantly associated with IA. For every unit increase in self-esteem, the chance of having IA decreased by 11%. By comparison, comorbidities such as substance-use disorder (excluding tobacco), mood disorder, and eating disorder were significantly more likely among Internet-addicted than in the non-addicted group. This could not be reported for anxiety disorders. A logistic regression showed that by adding self-esteem and psychopathology into the same model, self-esteem maintains its strong influence on IA.

Discussion and conclusions

Self-esteem was associated with IA, even after adjustment for substance-use disorders, mood disorder, and eating disorder. Self-esteem and psychopathology should be considered in prevention, intervention measures, as well as in the conception of etiological models.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Kristian Krause
,
Anja Bischof
,
Silvia Lewin
,
Diana Guertler
,
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
,
Ulrich John
, and
Christian Meyer

Background and aims

Symptoms of pathological gambling (SPG) and depression often co-occur. The nature of this relationship remains unclear. Rumination, which is well known to be associated with depression, might act as a common underlying factor explaining the frequent co-occurrence of both conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze associations between the rumination subfactors brooding and reflection and SPG.

Methods

Participants aged 14–64 years were recruited within an epidemiological study on pathological gambling in Germany. Cross-sectional data of 506 (80.4% male) individuals with a history of gambling problems were analyzed. The assessment included a standardized clinical interview. To examine the effects of rumination across different levels of problem gambling severity, sequential quantile regression was used to analyze the association between the rumination subfactors and SPG.

Results

Brooding (p = .005) was positively associated with the severity of problem gambling after adjusting for reflection, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic variables. Along the distribution of problem gambling severity, findings hold for all but the lowest severity level. Reflection (p = .347) was not associated with the severity of problem gambling at the median. Along the distribution of problem gambling severity, there was an inverse association at only one quantile.

Discussion and conclusions

Brooding might be important in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. With its relations to depression and problem gambling, it might be crucial when it comes to explaining the high comorbidity rates between SPG and depression. The role of reflection in SPG remains inconclusive.

Open access
Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors:
Søren Heintz
,
Aleksandar Mitic
,
Rolf H. Ringborg
,
Ulrich Krühne
,
John M. Woodley
, and
Krist V. Gernaey

A microfluidic toolbox for accelerated development of biocatalytic processes has great potential. This is especially the case for the development of advanced biocatalytic process concepts, where reactors and product separation methods are closely linked together to intensify the process performance, e.g., by the use of in-situ product removal (ISPR). This review provides a general overview of currently available tools in a microfluidic toolbox and how this toolbox can be applied to the development of advanced biocatalytic process concepts. Emphasis is placed on describing the possibilities and advantages of the microfluidic toolbox that are difficult to achieve with conventional batch-processbased technologies. Application of this microfluidic toolbox will potentially make it possible to intensify biocatalytic reactions and thereby facilitate the development towards novel and advanced biocatalytic processes, which in many cases have proven too difficult in conventional batch equipment.

Restricted access

Including gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective

Commentary on: A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution (van Rooij et al., 2018)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
,
Sophia Achab
,
Joël Billieux
,
Henrietta Bowden-Jones
,
Natacha Carragher
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
,
Susumu Higuchi
,
Daniel L. King
,
Karl Mann
,
Marc Potenza
,
John B. Saunders
,
Max Abbott
,
Atul Ambekar
,
Osman Tolga Aricak
,
Sawitri Assanangkornchai
,
Norharlina Bahar
,
Guilherme Borges
,
Matthias Brand
,
Elda Mei-Lo Chan
,
Thomas Chung
,
Jeff Derevensky
,
Ahmad El Kashef
,
Michael Farrell
,
Naomi A. Fineberg
,
Claudia Gandin
,
Douglas A. Gentile
,
Mark D. Griffiths
,
Anna E. Goudriaan
,
Marie Grall-Bronnec
,
Wei Hao
,
David C. Hodgins
,
Patrick Ip
,
Orsolya Király
,
Hae Kook Lee
,
Daria Kuss
,
Jeroen S. Lemmens
,
Jiang Long
,
Olatz Lopez-Fernandez
,
Satoko Mihara
,
Nancy M. Petry
,
Halley M. Pontes
,
Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
,
Florian Rehbein
,
Jürgen Rehm
,
Emanuele Scafato
,
Manoi Sharma
,
Daniel Spritzer
,
Dan J. Stein
,
Philip Tam
,
Aviv Weinstein
,
Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
,
Klaus Wölfling
,
Daniele Zullino
, and
Vladimir Poznyak

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it.

Open access