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  • Author or Editor: V Ghorbanzadeh x
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Low levels of testosterone in men with diabetes are associated with cardiovascular complications. We investigated the effect of testosterone and voluntary exercise on heart angiogenesis in castrated diabetic rats.


Sixty-three diabetic rats were treated with testosterone 2 mg/kg/day or voluntary exercise alone or combination of these two for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, heart tissue samples were collected and used for CD31 detection by immunohistochemical method and determination of miR-132 levels.


miR-132 levels and CD31 of heart tissue were higher after testosterone administration and in the voluntary exercise group in diabetic rats after 6 weeks. Combination of testosterone and voluntary exercise had synergistic effect on angiogenesis and miR-132 level. In castrated diabetic rats, there were significantly lower levels of miR-132 and CD31 in heart tissue compared to the diabetic group, whereas testosterone and exercise reversed these effects. In addition, testosterone supplementation plus exercise had an additive effect on miR-132 levels and CD31 in castrated diabetic rats.


It was concluded that castration in rats leads to reduced miR-132 levels and subsequently decreased angiogenesis in diabetes. Testosterone plus voluntary exercise improved angiogenesis possibly through enhancement of miR-132 levels in heart of castrated diabetic rats.

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Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of type 2 diabetes and diabetic-associated cardiovascular complications. This study investigated the impact of crocin combined with voluntary exercise on heart oxidative stress indicator in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

Materials and methods

Rats were divided into four groups: diabetes, diabetic-crocin, diabetic-voluntary exercise, diabetic-crocin-voluntary exercise. Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat diet (4 weeks) and injection of streptozotocin (intraperitoneally, 35 mg/kg). Animals received crocin orally (50 mg/kg); voluntary exercise was performed alone or combined with crocin treatment for 8 weeks. Finally, malondialdehyde (MDA), activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were measured spectrophotometrically.


Treatment of diabetic rats with crocin and exercise significantly decreased the levels of MDA (p < 0.001) and increased the activity of SOD, GPx, and CAT compared with the untreated diabetic group. In addition, combination of exercise and crocin amplified their effect on antioxidant levels in the heart tissue of type 2 diabetic rats.


We suggest that a combination of crocin with voluntary exercise treatment may cause more beneficial effects in antioxidant defense system of heart tissues than the use of crocin or voluntary exercise alone.

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