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The thermal decomposition of ammonium copper chromate was studied by TG, DTG and DTA in the temperature range 30‡ to 1100‡. It was found to occur in four stages. The solid decomposition products in these stages were characterized by chemical, X-ray and IR analysis. Based on the results, a probable mechanism for the overall decomposition of ammonium copper chromate in the above temperature range is discussed.

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Abstract  

Curing kinetics of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) in the presence of maleic anhydride (MA)/or nadic anhydride (NA) or mixture of MA/NA: 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) in varying molar ratios were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Curing behaviour of DGEBA in the presence of varying amounts of DDS:MA/NA was evaluated by recording DSC scans at heating rates of 5, 10, 15 and 20°C min−1. The peak exotherm temperature depends on the heating rate, structure of the anhydride as well as on the ratio of anhydride: DDS. Thermal stability of the isothermally cured resins was evaluated by thermogravimetry. The char yield was highest in case of resins cured using mixture of DDS:MA (0.75:0.25; sample EM-1) and DDS:NA (0.75:0.25, sample EN-1).

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The curing behaviour of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) was investigated by the dynamic differential scanning calorimetry using varying molar ratios of aromatic imide-amines and 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS). The imide-amines were prepared by reacting 1 mole of naphthalene 1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (N) and 4,4′-oxodiphthalic anhydride (O) with 2.5 moles of 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether (E) or 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl methane (M) or 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone (S) and designated as NE/OE or NM/OM or NS/OS. The mixture of the imide-amines and DDS at ratio of 0:1, 0.25:0.75, 0.5:0.5, 0.75:0.25 and 1:0 were used to investigate the curing behaviour of DGEBA. A single exotherm was observed on curing with mixture of imide-amines and DDS. This clearly shows that the two amines act as co-curing agents. Curing temperatures were higher with imide-amines having sulfone linkage irrespective of anhydride. Curing of DGEBA with mixture of imide-amines and or DDS resulted in a decrease in characteristic curing temperatures. The thermal stability of the isothermally cured resins was also evaluated using dynamic thermogravimetry in a nitrogen atmosphere. The char yield was higher in case of resins cured imide-amines based on N and E. The activation energy of decomposition and integral procedural decomposition temperature were also calculated from the TG data.

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This paper describes the thermal behaviour of blends of bisitaconimide (I) and bisnadimide (N) resins of similar structures. Bisitaconimides/bisnadimides based on 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (E);2,2'-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]propane (B); 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)benzene(R) and 1,4-bis(4-aminophenyl)benzene (H) were prepared and were designated as E-I/E-N; B-I/B-N; R-I/R-N and H-I/H-N respectively. Itaconimides had lower melting points and curing temperatures than that of corresponding nadimides. The blends of bisitaconimides and bisnadimides were prepared in the ratios of1:3, 1:1, 3:1 by solution mixing (chloroform/acetone). A decrease in the melting point and characteristic curing temperatures was observed in the blends. Thermal stability of cured resin blends was only marginally affected by the blend composition.

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Thermal behaviour of blends based on N,N'-bis(4-itaconimidophenyl) ether (IE) and 4,4'-bis(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) benzophenone (R1) or 4,4'-bis(2-allylphenoxy) benzophenone (R2) are described in this paper. The reactive diluent content was varied from 5-50% (mass/mass) in these blends. A decrease in the melting point and exothermic peak temperature was observed with increasing mass percent of reactive diluent. Thermal stability of blends was affected at high mass percentage of reactive diluents.

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Curing kinetics and thermal stability of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol

Mixture of aromatic imide-amines of benzophenone 3,3′, 4,4′-tetra-carboxylic acid dianhydride and 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: P. Sharma, V. Choudhary, and A. Narula

Abstract  

Curing kinetics of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) in the presence of varying molar ratios of aromatic imide-amines and 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) were investigated by the dynamic differential scanning calorimetry. The imide-amines were prepared by reacting 1 mole of benzophenone 3,3′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (B) with 2.5 moles of 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether (E)/ or 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl methane (M)/ or 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone (S) and designated as BE/ or BM/ or BS. The mixture of imide-amines and DDS at ratio of 0:1, 0.25:0.75, 0.5:0.5, 0.75:0.25 and 1:0 were used to investigate the curing behaviour of DGEBA. The multiple heating rate method (5, 10, 15 and 20°C min−1) was used to study the curing kinetics of epoxy resins. The peak exotherm temperature was found to be dependent on the heating rate, structure of imide-amines as well as on the ratio of imide-amine: DDS used. A broad exotherm was observed in the temperature range of 180–230°C on curing with mixture of imide-amines and DDS. Curing of DGEBA with mixture of imide-amines and/or DDS resulted in a decrease in characteristic curing temperatures. Activation energy of curing reaction as determined in accordance to the Ozawa’s method was found to be dependent on the structure of amine. The thermal stability of the isothermally cured resins was also evaluated using dynamic thermogravimetry in a nitrogen atmosphere. The char yield was highest in case of resins cured using mixture of DDS: BS (0.25:0.75; EBS-3), DDS: BM (0.5: 0.5; EBM-2) and DDS: BE (0.5: 0.5; EBE-2).

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Abstract  

Curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) with phosphorus containing amide amines i.e. bis[3(3’-aminobenzamido phenyl)]methyl phosphine oxide (MB),bis[3(4’-aminobenzamido phenyl)]methyl phosphine oxide (PB), tris[3(3’-aminobenzamidophenyl)] phosphine oxide (MT) and tris[3(4’-aminobenzamido phenyl)] phosphine oxide (PT)and conventionally used curing agent 4,4’-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (D) was studied by DSC. The amines MB, PB, MT and PT were synthesised in the laboratory and were characterized by determining elemental composition, melting point, and amine equivalent. Structural characterization was done by 1H-NMR and FTIR. The onset temperature of curing depended on the nucleophilicity of the amines and was in the orderMT≈MB<PT<PB<D. The exothermic peak temperatures were in the orderD>PB>PT>MT≈MB. The char residue of cured epoxy resin was significantly higher when phosphorus was incorporated in the cured network. Using mixed amine formulations based on amine D and P-containing amines and the molar ratio of these amines could easily control the curing characteristics. A linear relationship between char yield and P-content was observed in such formulations.

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