Authors:V. Pachauri, V. Mishra, P. Mishra, A.K. Singh, S. Singh, R. Singh and N.K. Singh
The present report is in continuation to our earlier reports on the identification and fine mapping of three aroma QTLs in basmati rice using a bi-parental mapping population derived from a cross between Pusa 1121, a basmati rice variety, and Pusa 1342, a non-aromatic rice variety. We used a combination of genetic mapping and transcriptome profiling to narrow down the number of differentially expressed genes in rice to identify potential candidate genes for rice grain aroma. Highly aromatic and non-aromatic recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were identified through sensory analysis of mature milled grains. RILs with similar phenotypes were bulked together using bulk segregant analysis approach which drastically reduced the number of differentially expressed genes from 4016 to 1344. The transcriptome profiles generated were analyzed through Affymetrix rice genome array containing probe sets designed from all the predicted rice gene sequences. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling revealed one down-regulated gene co-located in QTL region aro3.1 on chromosome 3, eight genes co-located in the aro4.1 region on chromosome 4 and the badh2 gene on chromosome 8 to be differentially expressed in the aromatic parent and aromatic bulk. These genes are the most suitable candidates for future validation and development of new molecular functional markers to facilitate marker assisted breeding.
Authors:K. Rout, P. Mishra, V. Charkavortty and K. Dash
Quantitative extraction of uranium(VI) is observed from 0.2M HCl by 5% (v/v) Cyanex 301. The extraction decreases with increasing acid concentration. Mixtures of Cyanex 301 with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), didecyl sulfoxide (DDSO) and Alamine 308 result in significant synergism in the extraction process, where a species of the type UO2R2. L is proposed to be extracted [RH=Cyanex 301 and L=TBP, DDSO or Alamine 308]. Significant extraction of uranium(VI) by 5% (v/v) Alamine 308 is observed at and above 2M HCl, which increases with further increase in acidity attaining a maximum at 6M, after which a slight decrease in extration is observed. Mixtures of Alamine 308 with TBP or DDSO result in a synergism, where a species of the type (R
NH)2 UO2Cl4. Lis extracted. [R
N=Alamine 308, L=TBP or DDSO]. Mixtures of Alamine 308 and Cyanex 301 at 2M HCl result in a profound antagonism in the extraction of uranium(VI).
Authors:P. Mishra, V. Chakravortty, K. Dash, N. Das and S. Bhattacharyya
Liquid-liquid extractions of zirconium(IV) from aqueous HCl solutions by mixtures of Aliquat 336 or Alamine 336 and diocytl sulfoxide (DOSO) in the diluent benzene has been found to be always higher than that by any single extractant. While the cationic extractants extract Zr(IV) above 6M HCl, DOSO extracts from 4M onwards. Synergism has been observed in all cases. With any of these extractants extraction becomes almost quantitative at and above 10M HCl, but with mixtures of the cationic and neutral extractants, extraction is quantitative in the range 8–9M HCl. Although the extracted species with DOSO alone seems to be ZrCl4·DOSO, with the mixture of extractants, however, the extracted species appear to be Q2ZrCl6·DOSO where Q is R3+NH (for Alamine 336) and R3+N(CH3) (for Aliquat 336). Studies on separation of95Zr–95Nb pair from aqueous HCl media by Alamine 336 or DOSO and their mixtures in benzene exhibit preferential extraction of95Nb leaving behind95Zr in the aqueous phase, and extractions have been found to depend both upon the extractant and HCl concentrations.
Authors:P. Mishra, V. Chakravortty, K. Dash, N. Das and S. Bhattacharyya
Synergism has been observed in the extraction of zirconium(IV) by mixtures of Aliquat 336 or Alamine 336 with a neutral donor TBP from aq. HCl solutions. Although the extractant dependency for Zr(IV) is found to be nearly second power with respect to TBP alone, monosolvate is found to be formed for extraction by its mixture with Aliquat 336 or Almine 336. Quantitative extraction is observed with mixtures at a lower acidity than that with individual extractants. The species formed is tentatively assigned to be Q2ZrCl6. TBP, where
Authors:P. Mishra, V. Chakra Vortty, K. Dash, N. Das and S. Bhattacharyya
Presence of thiocyanate ions results in appreciable extraction of Zr(IV) by Aliquat 336 from low aqueous HCl acidities, i.e., 0.1 to 4.5M. The variation of concentrations of HCl, thiocyanate and Aliquat 336 greatly influences the extent of extraction. Mixtures of Aliquat 336 and TOPO result in synergistic extraction of Zr and Hf from acidic thiocyanate media, the extracted species being the disolvate with TOPO. By controlled adjustment of HCl, SCN– and Aliquat 336 concentrations, separation of Zr, Nb and Hf is possible. A maximum separation factor (DNb/DZr) of 3675 has been achieved under certain conditions.
Authors:D. Mishra, R. Acharya, K. Swain, R. Joshi, V. Joshi, P. Verma, A. Hegde and A. Reddy
Thorium along with its daughter products present in the soil is one of the major contributors to the external gamma dose in
the environment. To establish the dose levels, quantification of thorium contents in soil samples is very important. As a
part of pre-operational environmental radiological surveillance, a total of 23 soil and six sand samples were collected from
different locations around the proposed nuclear power plant site of Jaitapur, Maharashtra. Thorium concentrations in these
samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples were irradiated with neutrons in Apsara
reactor at a neutron flux of ~5 × 1011 cm−2 s−1 and radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Relative method of INAA was used for
quantification of thorium utilizing 311.9 keV gamma ray of 233Pa, the daughter product of 233Th. The concentrations of thorium in the soil and sand samples were in the ranges of 4.0–18.8 and 1.2–6.2 mg kg−1 respectively.
Authors:S. L. Krishnamurthy, S. K. Sharma, D. K. Sharma, P. C. Sharma, Y. P. Singh, V. K. Mishra, D. Burman, B. Maji, B. K. Bandyopadhyay, S. Mandal, S. K. Sarangi, R. K. Gautam, P. K. Singh, K. K. Manohara, B. C. Marandi, D. P. Singh, G. Padmavathi, P. B. Vanve, K. D. Patil, S. Thirumeni, O. P. Verma, A. H. Khan, S. Tiwari, M. Shakila, A. M. Ismail, G. B. Gregorio and R. K. Singh
Genotype × environment (G × E) interaction effects are of special interest for identifying the most suitable genotypes with respect to target environments, representative locations and other specific stresses. Twenty-two advanced breeding lines contributed by the national partners of the Salinity Tolerance Breeding Network (STBN) along with four checks were evaluated across 12 different salt affected sites comprising five coastal saline and seven alkaline environments in India. The study was conducted to assess the G × E interaction and stability of advanced breeding lines for yield and yield components using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. In the AMMI1 biplot, there were two mega-environments (ME) includes ME-A as CARI, KARAIKAL, TRICHY and NDUAT with winning genotype CSR 2K 262; and ME-B as KARSO, LUCKN, KARSA, GOA, CRRI, DRR, BIHAR and PANVE with winning genotypes CSR 36. Genotypes CSR 2K 262, CSR 27, NDRK 11-4, NDRK 11-3, NDRK 11-2, CSR 2K 255 and PNL 1-1-1-6-7-1 were identified as specifically adapted to favorable locations. The stability and adaptability of AMMI indicated that the best yielding genotypes were CSR 2K 262 for both coastal saline and alkaline environments and CSR 36 for alkaline environment. CARI and PANVEL were found as the most discernible environments for genotypic performance because of the greatest GE interaction. The genotype CSR 36 is specifically adapted to coastal saline environments GOA, KARSO, DRR, CRRI and BIHAR and while genotype CSR 2K 262 adapted to alkaline environments LUCKN, NDUAT, TRICH and KARAI. Use of most adapted lines could be used directly as varieties. Using them as donors for wide or specific adaptability with selection in the target environment offers the best opportunity for widening the genetic base of coastal salinity and alkalinity stress tolerance and development of adapted genotypes. Highly stable genotypes can improve the rice productivity in salt-affected areas and ensure livelihood of the resource poor farming communities.