Authors:Nadja Fodor, S. K. Dube, I. Fodor, E. Horváth, Edith Nagy, V. N. Vakharia and Altancsimeg Rencendorsh
Direct DNA inoculations were used to determine the efficacy of gene immunisation of chickens to elicit protective immune responses against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Thevp2 gene of IBDV strains GP40 and D78, and thevp2-vp4-vp3 encoding segment of strain D78 were cloned in an expression vector which consisted of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early enhancer and promoter, adenovirus tripartite leader sequences and SV40 polyadenylation signal. For purification of vaccine-quality plasmid DNA fromE. coli, an effective method was developed. Chickens were vaccinated by inoculation of DNA by two routes (intramuscular and intraperitoneal). Two weeks later, chickens were boosted with DNA, and at 2 weeks post-boost, they were challenged with virulent IBDV strain. Low to undetectable levels of IBDV-specific antibodies and no protection were observed with DNA encoding VP2. However, plasmids encoding VP2-VP4-VP3 induced IBDV-specific antibodies and protection in the chickens. DNA immunisation opens a new approach to the development of gene vaccines for chickens against infectious diseases.
Authors:K. Nagy, V. Szlávik, G. Rácz, G. Óvári, J. Vág and G. Varga
The human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) has been used as a model for studying the molecular mechanisms of salivary cells. The aim of this study was to investigate some aspects of salivary Ca
signalling. We focused on the presence and function of specific molecular markers of salivary cells to see whether this cell line retained normal salivary characteristics, despite the neoplastic changes. We detected the M3 acetylcholine receptor and intracellular salivary amylase mRNA with RT-PCR. Carbachol treatment caused a rapid, transient elevation of [Ca
, showing that the cholinergic receptors are functional in HSG cells. Protein kinase C activation by phorbol-esther PMA, prior to carbachol treatment, inhibited the normal Ca
signalling pathway in HSG cells. Using selective antagonists, we also identified the dominant muscarinic receptor subtype M3 on HSG cells. We also observed that functional extracellular purinergic receptors were present on HSG cells and coupled to intracellular Ca
signalling. Our results suggested that the coupling mechanisms of these receptors remained relatively intact despite the neoplastic transformation. This enables us to use this cell line to model the role of muscarinic and purinergic control of salivary gland function, cell proliferation and differentiation.
Authors:Valentina Kutyifa, B. Merkely, V. K. Nagy, A. Apor, E. Zima and L. Gellér
Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D TEE) is a novel method providing high spatial and temporal resolution imaging of the heart. During pulmonary vein isolation procedures visualization of the atria, interatrial septum and the ablation catheter is of high importance to increase safety. RT 3D TEE might be a useful tool to guide left atrial ablations.
A 53-year-old man was referred to our hospital to undergo pulmonary vein isolation procedure for the treatment of symptomatic drug-refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The transseptal puncture was performed under RT 3D TEE-guidance with direct visualization of the interatrial septum and fossa ovalis. RT 3D TEE provided a three-dimensional view of the puncture with “tenting”-sign and the transseptal needle-fossa ovalis angle enhancing the manipulation of the ablation catheter within the left atrium. The ablation catheter was visualized and tracked during the procedure. No adverse events occurred during the procedure.
Our case report demonstrates the feasibility of RT 3D TEE-guided atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. Safety profile might be improved by the real-time direct view of fossa ovalis. Decrease in fluoroscopy time can be achieved by visualizing the ablation catheter during the procedure.
Authors:R. Tömösközi-Farkas, Zs. Polgár, M. Nagy-Gasztonyi, V. Horváth, T. Renkecz, K. Simon, F. Boross, Z. Fabulya and H. Daood
Anti-nutritive components in multi resistant potato cultivars were investigated in relation to conventional and organic farming for three years. Glycoalkaloids, nitrate, nitrite, asparagine, and glutamine contents of tubers were examined. Farming technology was found not to have an effect on the level of glycoalkaloids, which was influenced mostly by the genotype and season. Nitrogen fertilisation caused significant increase in nitrate, asparagine, and glutamine contents as compared to organic farming. Nitrite content was found to be more independent of farming technologies than nitrate. Tubers of cultivar Rioja had the lowest nitrate content irrespective of season or technology. In conclusion, the absolute amount and changes of different anti-nutritive components of potato tubers were influenced differently by the technology, genotype, and season in a complex manner. Organic farming had no effect on the glycoalkaloid content, but the nitrate levels had a tendency to be lower compared to conventional farming. This can be seen as a positive effect of organic farming.
Authors:T. Nagy, K. Nótári, A. Takács, T. Malkócs, J. Tökölyi and A. Molnár V.
The rare, fully mycoheterotrophic Ghost Orchid, Epipogium aphyllum is only visible during its short flowering and fruiting season, which lasts for a few weeks between May and October. Due to the apparent unpredictability of its flowering, decades may pass between subsequent observations at the same locality. The factors affecting timing of flowering in this enigmatic species remain largely unexplored. In Hungary, it is an extremely rare species: between 1924 and 2014 only 25 dated observations from 15 locations are known. Hungary is located on the edge of the species’ distribution area where higher precipitation may occur only in higher regions of mountains. Hence, the spatial and temporal pattern of precipitation might limit the emergence of generative shoots. In this paper we compared rainfall patterns in relation with the Ghost Orchids’ observations to multiannual precipitation averages. The year of flowering and the month preceding flowering (but not the year before flowering and the month of flowering) were characterised by significantly more rainfall than the multi-annual average precipitation. These results suggest that the appearance of the species in Hungary is precipitation-dependent.
Authors:I. Grigorszky, Gy. Dévai, K. Kiss, B. Tóthmérész, M. Gligora, A. Plenkovic-Moraj, Koraljka Kraj, V. Béres, Cs. Schnitchen, G. Borics and A. Nagy
Phosphatase enzymes are capable of releasing phosphate through cleavage of phosphoester bonds. The seasonal importance of this process was examined by using a model substrate paranitrophenylphosphate and the Michaelis-Menten equation to estimate the release rate of PO
-P from phosphomonoesters. The seasonal occurrence of phosphomonoesters and acid phosphatase activity was used to estimate the velocity of phosphate release from these compounds. Filter fractionation of phosphatase activity demonstrated that most activity (>60%) was in size fractions less than 0.45 μm. The release rates were highest in May and June (15 to 25 nmol L
) during the
(Raphidophyta) bloom and decreased to less than 2 nmol L
in two weeks and remained low throughout the summer and the fall. Fractionation of
labelled dissolved organic phosphorus showed this fraction to vary considerably through the year. Potential phosphate release declined through the summer and into the fall. Significance of the co-occurrence of phosphomonoesters and acid phosphatase activity maxima and
(Raphidophyta) bloom is discussed.
Authors:Cs. Molnár, Zs. Molnár, Z. Barina, N. Bauer, M. Biró, L. Bodonczi, A. Csathó, J. Csiky, J. Deák, G. Fekete, K. Harmos, A. Horváth, I. Isépy, M. Juhász, J. Kállayné Szerényi, G. Király, G. Magos, A. Máté, A. Mesterházy, A. Molnár, J. Nagy, M. Óvári, D. Purger, D. Schmidt, G. Sramkó, V. Szénási, F. Szmorad, Gy. Szollát, T. Tóth, T. Vidra and V. Virók
The first version of the map of the Hungarian vegetation-based landscape regions were prepared at the scale of 1: 200,000 (1 km or higher resolution). The primary goal of the map was to provide an exact background for the presentation and evaluation of the data of the MÉTA database. Secondly, we intended to give an up-to-date and detailed vegetation-based division of Hungary with a comprehensive nomenclature of the regions. Regions were primarily defined on the basis of their present zonal vegetation, or their dominant extrazonal or edaphic vegetation. Where this was not possible, abiotic factors that influence the potential vegetation, the flora were taken into consideration, thus, political and economical factors were ignored. All region borders were defined by local expert botanists, mainly based on their field knowledge. The map differs in many features from the currently used, country-wide, flora-or geography-based divisions in many features. We consider our map to be temporary (i.e. a work map), and we plan to refine and improve it after 5 years of testing.