A scintillator, based on the direct effect of a radiation upon a dissolved activator, has been suggested. Concentrated /2–2.5 mol/1/ solutions of Tb3+ in D2O and H2O, and aqueous solutions of HCl, HNO3, and HClO4 have been found to possess a high light output of scintillations affected by -particles of actionoids. The scintillation efficiency of terbium solution in D2O is higher than that of some well-known organic scintillators. The terbium scintillator is quenched feebly by actinoid salts. Besides, it is of low sensitivity for the - and -radiation. The scintillations in terbium solutions represent groups of separate single-electron pulses with an exponentially decreasing frequency of their occurrence within groups.
Authors:V. Berezhnoi, N. Valetova, G. Dunaev, N. Kazakov, and V. Zubarev
Some Chernobyl soils were collected in the north-west direction. The samples have been separated into particle size fractions 1–2; 0.5–1; 0.25–0.5; 0.16–0.25; 0.05–0.16; 0.01–0.05; 0.005–0.01; 0.002–0.005; 0.00005–0.002; and less than 0.00005 mm. The fractions were analyzed on238,239,240Pu,241Am,242,244Cm content. In contrast to the global plutonium fallout, the peak of plutonium activity falls in the particle size range of 0.01–0.05 or 0.005–0.01 mm in Chernobyl soils. Transplutonium elements are more mobile in the soil. As the distance from Chernobyl increases, the trend of their distribution becomes much similar to the global fallout. It is found that the most mobile part of soil with particles of sizes less than 0.05 mm contains 55–70% of plutonium activity and 30–65% of americium and curium activity.
Authors:Y. Rubtsov, A. Kazakov, V. Nedelko, Al. Shastin, Tatyana Larikova, Tamara Sorokina, and B. Korsounskii
The thermal stability of the ammonium nitrate (AN)/sodium salt of 1,3-dichlor-2,4,6-trioxo-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (DC) composition
has been studied. The factors of influence on the rates of reactions in the composition, namely, a water content, composition
wetting methods, a dispersion of composition components, sample mass values, have been examined. The water presence in the
composition reduces its thermal stability. The mechanism includes the partial dissociation of AN to HNO3 and NH3 and the hydrolysis of DC with the formation of some unstable Cl-containing compounds (chloramines, nitrogen chloride). The
reaction of ammonium cation with active chlorine has been found to give rise to the explosion of the AN/DC composition. Such
a situation is typical for other ammonium salt/DC compositions.