Let A be an algebra without unit. If ∥ ∥ is a complete regular norm on A it is known that among the regular extensions of ∥ ∥ to the unitization of A there exists a minimal (operator extension) and maximal (ℓ1-extension) which are known to be equivalent. We shall show that the best upper bound for the ratio of these two extensions
is exactly 3. This improves the results represented by A. K. Gaur and Z. V. Kovřk and later by T. W. Palmer.
Authors:P. V. Drion, O. Szenci, F. Ectors, D. Wirth, Zs. Perényi, P. Muller and J. F. Beckers
The technology of reproduction progressed considerably during the last decade, leading to a certain availability of in vitro methods for fertilisation, oocyte maturation and embryo culture. The most spectacular manipulations are cloning and transgenesis. This review focuses on the early appearance of germinal cell precursors and the long-standing fate of gametes in mammals. The evident complexity and long-term programming of events in gametes and early embryos explain part of the difficulties encountered during the development of in vitro and in vivo methods such as multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), oestrus synchronisation, ovulation induction, superovulation, in vitro maturation and fertilisation, cryopreservation, transgenesis, nuclear transfer and cloning) and the occurrence of unexpected alterations of development, e.g. embryonic or fetal mortality, large-weight newborn syndrome and other dysregulations in imprinting or DNA transmission.
Authors:M. Trenovszki, V. Lebovics, T. Müller, T. Szabó, Á. Hegyi, B. Urbányi, L. Horváth and A. Lugasi
The aim of present study was to survey the fatty acid composition and fat content in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fillet captured in five different fish farms located in Hungary. Lipid peroxidation characteristics (conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde levels) were also determined in fish muscle. Data on fatty acid composition of common carp has shown that different methods of rearing and feeding cause significant differences in the proportions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of this fish species. According to present results, it seems that the feeding practice of the last month before capture has determined the fatty acid profile of fillet, therefore the technology of carp nutrition should be divided into two main periods: first a growth and weight gain period; and a second one when the nutritional quality of the fillet composition can be improved.
Authors:M. Arnal, V. Balsamo, G. Ronca, A. Sánchez, A. Müller, E. Cañizales and C. Urbina de Navarro
A new technique to thermally fractionate polymers using DSC has been recently developed in our laboratory. The applications of the novel successive self-nucleation and annealing (SSA) technique to characterize polyolefins with very dissimilar molecular structures are presented as well as the optimum conditions to thermally fractionate any suitable polymer sample with SSA. For ethylene/-olefin copolymers, the SSA technique can give information on the distribution of short chain branching and lamellar thickness. In the case of functionalized polyolefins, detailed examinations of SSA results can help to establish possible insertion sites of grafted molecules. The application of the technique to characterize crosslinked polyethylene and crystallizable blocks within ABC triblock copolymers is also presented.
Authors:G. Csósza, K. Karlócai, G. Losonczy, V. Müller and Z. Lázár
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive disease, characterized by increased vascular resistance leading to right ventricle (RV) failure. The extent of right ventricular dysfunction crucially influences disease prognosis; however, currently no therapies have specific cardioprotective effects. Besides discussing the pathophysiology of right ventricular adaptation in PAH, this review focuses on the roles of growth factors (GFs) in disease pathomechanism. We also summarize the involvement of GFs in the preservation of cardiomyocyte function, to evaluate their potential as cardioprotective biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets in PAH.
Authors:N. Eszes, A. Bohács, Á. Cseh, G. Toldi, A. Bikov, I. Ivancsó, V. Müller, I. Horváth, J. Rigó, B. Vásárhelyi, Gy Losonczy and Lilla Tamási
Asthmatic inflammation during pregnancy poses a risk for maternal and fetal morbidities. Circulating T cell immune phenotype is known to correlate with airway inflammation (detectable by fractional concentration of nitric oxide present in exhaled breath (FENO)) in non-pregnant allergic asthmatics. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of peripheral T cell phenotype to FENO and clinical variables of asthma during pregnancy.We examined 22 pregnant women with allergic asthma in the 2nd/3rd trimester. The prevalence of Th1, Th2, regulatory T (Treg) and natural killer (NK) cell subsets was identified with flow cytometry using cell-specific markers. FENO, Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score and lung function were evaluated.Peripheral blood Th1, Th2, Treg, and NK cell prevalence were not significantly correlated to airway inflammation assessed by FENO in asthmatic pregnant women (all cells p > 0.05; study power > 75%). However, an inverse correlation was detected between Th2 cell prevalence and ACT total scores (p = 0.03) in asthmatic pregnancy.Blunted relationship between T cell profile and airway inflammation may be the result of pregnancy induced immune tolerance in asthmatic pregnancy. On the other hand, increased Th2 response impairs disease control that supports direct relationship between symptoms and cellular mechanisms of asthma during pregnancy.
Authors:Krisztina Rusai, A. Prokai, C. Juanxing, K. Meszaros, B. Szalay, K. Pásti, V. Müller, U. Heemann, J. Lutz, T. Tulassay and A. Szabo
Previous experimental data suggest that steroids might have protective effects during hypoxic/ischemic injury of various organs. In this study, the association between dexamethason (Dexa) treatment and the anti-apoptotic SGK-1 was tested in ischemic renal injury. In vitro, HK-2 cells were exposed to 24 h hypoxia, and the effect of Dexa incubation on SGK-1 expression / activation and on cell death was studied. In an in vivo rat model of unilateral renal IR, animals were treated with Dexa, and serum renal function parameters, tissue injury and SGK-1 expression and localization were examined after different reperfusion times (2 h, 4 h and 24 h). Dexa at a dose of 2 mg/L exerted a protective effect on cell survival assessed by LDH release and vital staining paralleled by marked up-regulation of SGK-1. In rats, 2 mg/kg Dexa treatment 24 h prior to ischemia resulted in less severe tissue injury and ameliorated urea nitrogen levels 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, SGK-1 expression and phosphorylation were higher in Dexa animals demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescence technique. Our results provide novel data on the signalling mechanism of Dexa under hypoxia / ischemia and further support that Dexa emerges as an attractive pharmacological agent for the prevention of ischemic injury.
Authors:V. J. Debastiani, S. C. Muller, J. M. Oliveira, F. S. Rocha, M. C. Sestren-Bastos and L. D. S. Duarte
The phylogenetic relationship among species may influence the mechanisms controlling local community assembly in ecological time. We analyzed the degree of recurrence of phylogenetic structure patterns in woody plant communities distributed along grassland-forest ecotones, across different vegetation types in southern Brazil, and the effect of phylogenetic pool size used to assess such patterns. Species frequency in quadrats distributed along grassland-forest ecotones was surveyed in different phytogeographic regions, where forests tend to expand over grasslands. We used principal coordinates of phylogenetic structure (PCPS) to evaluate the structure within vegetation quadrats divided into three habitat categories: grassland, forest edge and forest interior. Furthermore, phylogenetic structure measures were computed using different phylogenetic pool sizes. Our analyses showed consistent patterns in relation to habitat categories and to different phylogenetic pool sizes. Basal clades of angiosperms were associated with forest areas, while late-divergence clades were associated with grasslands. These results suggest that grasslands act as phylogenetic habitat filters to forest woody species, independently of species composition at each site and the phylogenetic pool. Rosanae and Asteranae act as vanguards of forest expansion over grasslands, while Magnolianae species tend to be restricted to forest. Our results shed light on the organization of ecological systems, providing evidence of recurrent phylogenetic structure patterns in ecotone plant communities at regional scale.