Authors:J. Dweck, L. Morais, M. Fonseca, V. Campos, and P. Büchler
Aiming the use of the sewage sludge produced in one of the largest Brazilian wastewater treatment stations as a raw material
for the ceramic industry, the sintering process of the ashes produced from its calcination was evaluated by heating microscopy
thermal analysis (HMTA). From the microprocessed images, a method was developed to obtain HMTA dimensional change curves as
a function of temperature, equivalent to those usually obtained from dilatometers or by thermomechanical analysis (TMA). The
final product after sintering at 1050°C, characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and
X-ray dispersive energy, indicates the presence of a vitreous phase containing phosphorus, which explains the good sintering
properties of the studied calcined sludge, as shown from its HMTA dimensional change curve.
Authors:R. Soares, V. Menezes, M. Fonseca, and J. Dweck
Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, using only a combustion step with oxygen, were used to characterize carbonaceous
products. Binary composition of alumina and wood charcoal, coke, carbon black, petroleum coke or carbon graphite were prepared
containing 5 wt% of each. They were characterized by the burnout onset and DTA and DTG peak temperatures, which range from
476°C for wood charcoal to 790°C for carbon graphite.
Complementary characterization of each product was also performed by estimating the ash content from the TG curves, and the
calorific value from the DTA curves. The results indicate that these thermal analysis techniques, with only one oxygen burnout
step, can be applied both for quality control of each raw material, and to determine the appropriate processing temperatures
of the ceramic compositions in which they are used.
Authors:M. M. Fonseca, M. I. Yoshida, I. C. P. Fortes, and V. M. D. Pasa
Motor gasoline must present characteristics that guarantee its quality and the good performance of internal combustion engines without harming the environment. The contamination of gasoline by solvents can seriously adulterate its physical-chemical properties and affect its volatility and detonation capacity. To investigate organic solvent adulteration in gasoline samples, thermal analysis technique (TG/DTG) can be used as an auxiliary tool in the study of the thermal behavior of liquid fuels, as demonstrated by the present work involving a comparative analysis of kerosene-free and doped gasoline.
Authors:V.M. Nascimento, K.M. Nascimento, and G.G. Fonseca
Microalgae are promising alternatives to sequestration of carbon and reduction of environmental problems, e.g. the greenhouse effect and industrial water pollution. Depending on the growth conditions, microalgae can differ in their metabolism products, leading them to grow at different rates. Intracellular reactions and nutritional requirements from cell metabolism, as well as biomass composition, may vary in function of the temperature. In this study, the biotechnological potential of three microalgae strains from the species was evaluated in terms of growth, biomass composition, fatty acid profile, and chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. Each of the three species demonstrated different potential depending on their metabolisms: Scenedesmus spinosus presented fastest growth and had the highest protein content (52.99%), Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata presented the highest content of lipid extracted (26.51%), and Scenedesmus acuminatus showed increased production of chlorophyll (5.25 mg l–1) and carotenoid (1.02 mg l–1) pigments.
Authors:Luiza N. H. Arakaki, V. H. A. Pinto, V. L. S. Augusto Filha, M. G. Fonseca, J. G. P. Espínola, Tomaz Arakaki, and Claudio Airoldi
A new material containing a potential ligand for transition metals was prepared through the reaction of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and thioglycolic acid. The new adsorbent was characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and specific surface area calculations. The formulated material was used in the removal of cobalt, copper, and nickel cations from aqueous solutions. Calorimetric titration was applied to study the interaction of these cations with the new adsorbent; the latter displayed a chelating moiety with basic centers containing nitrogen, oxygen, and several sulfur atoms, capable of capturing cations from aqueous solutions. This process of extraction was carried out by a batch method to yield the following order of maximum retention capacity: Ni > Co > Cu. The process of cation interactions showed exothermic enthalpies. The calculated ΔG values are in agreement with the spontaneity of the proposed reactions and conformed to the values found by applying the Langmuir model to these systems. The positive entropy and negative enthalpy values indicated that the reactions are favorable.
Authors:J. D. T. Arruda-Neto, A. C. Cestari, C. B. Zamboni, M. Saiki, G. P. Nogueira, L. E. C. Fonseca, M. V. Manso-Guevara, A. Deppman, V. P. Likhachev, J. Mesa, O. A. M. Helene, S. A. C. Jorge, M. N. Martins, A. N. Gouveia, O. Rodriguez, F. Guzmán, and F. Garcia
Neutron activation analysis has been used to study uranium incorporation in poultry bones as function of chow doped with: (a) uranium (20 ppm); (b) U-doped food (20 ppm) plus phytase (120 ppm) and (c) U-doped food (20 ppm) plus phytase (180 ppm). To investigate this situation experiments involving several groups of Cobb broilers was performed. Two animals per group were sacrificed weekly up to their adultness and uranium concentration in the tibia was measured. It was observed that the concentration of uranium (µg U/g bone) is decreasing all along the animal life spanning period of 14-42 days. This behavior suggests that the skeleton mass is growing faster than the corresponding accumulation of uranium. The administration of phytase seems not to alter this scenario.