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In our 3-year study ground beetle assemblages were investigated in habitats with different weed coverage and insecticide treatments in an apple orchard in Hungary. The aim of the study was to compare the effects on the activity density and composition of carabid assemblages of two insecticide disturbance levels; 1) applications of selective insecticides (integrated plant protection, IPM - representing lower degree of disturbance); 2) applications of broad-spectrum insecticides (conventional plant protection - representing a higher degree of disturbance). Particular attention was paid to the joint effects of weed patterns in the orchard and insecticide treatments as well as to the carabid assemblages in the two neighbouring semi-natural habitats. The less intense insecticide disturbance significantly increased the activity density and species richness of the apple orchard carabid assemblages. The mosaic habitats of the orchard herb layer, where higher and lower herb coverage alternate, altogether maintained more abundant and diverse carabid assemblages, than the habitat of closed, dense vegetation. The intra-orchard habitats with higher weed coverage enhanced the post-disturbance re-colonisation from the hedges, and therefore resulted carabid assemblages more similar to those of the semi-natural hedge vegetation. However, this re-colonisation was not great enough to compensate for the high mortality of the orchard carabid assemblage, which mostly consisted of species rare in the hedges. The high insecticide disturbance, affected the diversity of carabid assemblages in the intra-orchard habitats of high and low weed coverage differently, probably because of induced inter-habitat movement. Habitat attachment and post-disturbance recovery of Amara aenea, A. bifrons, A. fulva, A. ingenua, Broscus cephalotes, Calathus ambiguus, C. erratus, C. fuscipes, Cicindela hybrida, Harpalus albanicus, H. distinguendus, H. flavescens, H. froelichi, H. hirtipes, H. picipennis, H. rufipes, H. serripes, H. servus and H. tardus are also discussed.
Community structure (species richness, dominance, similarity, diversity and seasonal dynamics) of the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) was examined in an abandoned, a conventional and an organic vineyard management plot of an experimental vineyard in Hungary.During the survey, a total number of 493 specimens belonging to 33 species were collected by pitfall traps. The dominant species were Sphenoma togata, Xantholinus linearis and Pseudocypus penetrans that presented 76.66% of all staphylinids collected in the vineyard. All of the most common staphylinid species had only one generation per year and overwintered as adults.There were significant differences in species richness and abundance; both were the highest in the abandoned plot. The dissimilarity in species composition between the differently treated plots was also high. The diversity was the highest in organic, and the lowest in conventionally treated plot, while the abandoned one showed an intermediate value.
We have examined the community structure indices (species richness, dominance, diversity and similarity) of the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) assemblages in three differently treated apple orchards in Hungary.During the survey, a total number of 728 specimens belonging to 73 species were collected with pitfall traps. The dominant species were Omalium caesum, Drusilla canaliculata, Dexiogyia corticina, Mocyta orbata and Styloxys insecatus .Out of the differently treated orchards, the staphylinid abundance was the higher in the abandoned than in the conventionally treated and in integrated pest management orchards.The diversity profile of the communities showed that there were no differences between the diversity of the conventionally treated and abandoned orchards, and both were significantly more diverse than the IPM orchard. The similarity indices indicated that the forming dominance of the species was also influenced by the treatment. The distribution of the dominant species in each pitfall trap used in each plot shows the insecticide tolerance of the species
The heteropteran fauna in three apple orchards in Kent and East Sussex, England was surveyed in 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. As a result of intensive sampling, a total of 104 species were recorded. Ninety species were recorded in an experimental apple orchard at East Malling Research, Kent, which had replicated plots subject to different pesticide management regimes, while 43 and 38 species were recorded in two commercial organic apple orchards near Marden, Kent and Robertsbridge, East Sussex, respectively. In the canopy layer the abundant species, in decreasing order of their relative abundance, were Orius vicinus, Atractotomus mali, Anthocoris nemorum, Heterotoma planicornis, Phytocoris reuteri, Lygus rugulipennis, Phytocoris longipennis, Palomena prasina, Orthotylus marginalis, Blepharidopterus angulatus and Deraeocoris ruber . These 11 species comprised at least 80% of the total Heteroptera abundance in the canopy in each apple orchard. The composition of bug communities differed between years and between the plots subject to different insecticide regimes in the experimental orchard at East Malling. However, these differences were exceeded by the characteristic differences in species composition and relative abundances between the three different orchards.
Species richness and composition of carabid assemblages were investigated on the ground surface of differently treated (abandoned, commercial and IPM) apple and pear orchards in Hungary. Extensive sampling was carried out by pitfall trapping in 13 apple and 3 pear orchards located in ten different regions. 28 230 individuals belonging to 174 species were collected. Additional four species were collected by trunk-traps and 23 species were found during the review of earlier literature. Altogether 201 carabid species representing 40% of the carabid fauna of Hungary were found in our and earlier studies. The species richness varied between 23 and 76 in the different orchards, the average species richness was 43 species. The common species, occurring with high relative abundance in the individual orchards in decreasing order were: Pseudoophonus rufipes, Harpalus distinguendus, Harpalus tardus, Anisodactylus binotatus, Calathus fuscipes, Calathus erratus, Amara aenea, Harpalus affinis and Pterostichus melanarius. The species with wide distribution, occurring in more than 75% of the investigated orchards in decreasing order were: Pseudoophonus rufipes, Trechus quadristriatus, Harpalus tardus, Harpalus distinguendus, Pterostichus melanarius, Amara aenea, Amara familiaris Calathus fuscipes, Poecilus cupreus, Calathus ambiguus, Calathus melanocephalus, Pseudoophonus griseus and Harpalus serripes. Species, which are rare in Hungary, and therefore are interesting in respect of faunal research, were: Amara cursitans, Harpalus progrediens, Notiophilus pusillus, Olisthopus rotundatus, Pangus scaritides and Parophonus hirsutulus.
Species richness and composition of cicada (Auchenorrhyncha) assemblages were investigated in apple and pear orchards subject to different pesticide management intensities (conventional commercial orchards with a full spray programme of fungicides and broad-spectrum insecticides, Integrated Pest Management, organic and abandoned orchards) in Hungary in 1999, 2000 and 2001. Sampling was done with Malaise traps, by sweep netting and beating nets in ten apple and three pear orchards in seven different regions of Hungary. Altogether 15 686 individuals were collected in the orchards investigated, belonging to 114 species, representing 20% of the cicada fauna of Hungary. The most common species, in decreasing order of relative abundance, were: Eupteryx atropunctata (Goeze), Empoasca solani (Curtis), Edwardsiana crataegi (Douglas), Kybos virgator (Ribaut), Empoasca decipiens Paoli, Zyginidia pullula (Boheman), Eupteryx calcarata Ossiannilsson, Kybos populi (Edwards), Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), Edwardsiana rosae (Linnaeus) and Ribautiana tenerrima (Herrich - Schäffer). The species which are rare in Hungary and therefore are interesting in respect of faunal research were: Enantiocephalus cornutus (Herrich - Schäffer), Rhoananus hypochlorus (Fieber), Metalimnus formosus (Boheman), Phlogotettix cyclops (Mulsant and Rey), Ossiannilssonola callosa (Then) and Mocuellus metrius (Flor). The mean proportion of males was 0.82 and 0.44 in the samples collected by Malaise trapping and sweep netting, respectively.
The same Neuropteroidea community was collected and studied in Hungary in the years 1991 and 1992 by using different trapping techniques: a) Malaise trap, b) suction trap, c) yellow pan trap and d) light trap. The studies aimed to compare the different sampling methods for individual species, families and for the whole Neuropteroidea community. In case the whole Neuropteroidea community the trapped individual numbers collected by the suction trap surpassed all other trap types. Relatively high numbers of Neuropteroidea could be collected both by light trap and Malaise traps. The yellow pan traps did not succeed in catching large enough samples neither from point of view of sample size nor from species richness. According to the number of species collected there were not discovered any big difference between the catches of suction trap, Malaise traps and light trap.
To compare the efficiency of collecting methods by structural characterisation of a neuropteroid community the authors carried out an investigation in a commercial apple orchard at Szigetcsép by using three different trapping techniques, Malaise trap, suction trap and light trap. Considering of the individuals of this community, the suction trap seems to be the most useful sampling device outrunning the material caught by light trap and especially those of Malaise trap. During the investigation the suction trap and light trap show the numbers of the species and individuals of Coniopterygidae, Hemerobiidae and Chrysopidae families in a similar way. To record snake flies, Raphidiidae, Malaise trap seems to be the most suitable sampling device while the light trap is the best for sponge flies, Sisyridae. Abundance of Hemerobius humulinus and Wesmaelius subnebulosus was underestimated by Malaise trap compared with the records of suction trap; however Micromus angulatus and Micromus variegatus were overestimated by Malaise trap. Comparing the results of light trap to suction trap Hemerobius humulinus, Wesmaelius subnebulosus and Chrysoperla carnea complex were underrepresented while Micromus angulatus, Micromus variegatus, Chrysopa formosa and Chrysopa phyllochroma were overestimated. Diversity profiles drawn by different sampling techniques show that the diversity of the suction trap samples, except for the beginning of the scale parameter, is significantly (p < 0.01) lower in its total length from the values of light trap and Malaise trap. In the profile of plots of light trap and Malaise trap the diversity of the samples were not different in the species with medium and higher abundance. In conclusion, the sampling techniques used in the ecological investigations can determine the characteristics of neuropteroid communities. These results show that sampling devices have to be chosen cautiously according to the main aims and the interpretation of investigations.
About 2500 arthropod species immigrate, or carried by wind, or introduced by man in the orchards, under Hungarian climatic conditions. However, the number of the apple pest species is approximately 30. Owing to the effect of the relationships among the plant-phytophagous-zoophagous species those could colonize the orchard for which the apple provides suitable food sources and whose populations are not regulated or are regulated by a weak efficiency by parasitoids and predators. These populations create the primary pest communities. When the individual number of the parasitoid and predator species is reduced by the broad-spectrum insecticides, the population density of those phytophagous species could increase whose populations was restricted up to that time. In this case the secondary pest communities could develop. The integrated pest management provides the possibilities to solve the problems caused by the regular use of broad-spectrum insecticides. The real requirement is to find and to harmonize those methods which regulate the population dynamics of the species of the primary pest communities.
The species richness and composition ofAuchenorrhyncha assemblages in three apple orchards in Kent and East Sussex, England was surveyed in 2001 and 2002. Planthoppers, leafhoppers and froghoppers were collected from the tree canopies using yellow sticky traps and a tree beating technique, and from the grass alleyways between the trees using sweep-netting. As a result of intensive sampling, 67 species were collected in an experimental apple orchard at East Malling Research, with a further 30 and 36 species in two organic apple orchards, situated near Marden and Robertsbridge, respectively. A total of 77 species was recorded in the survey. The collection methods applied determined substantially the size and species composition of the samples, the relative abundance of the Auchenorrhyncha species and proportion of males. The most common species collected in the canopy, in decreasing order were: Edwardsiana rosae, Empoasca decipiens, Ribautiana debilis, Edwardsiana crataegi, Empoasca vitis, Philaenus spumarius and Tachycixius pilosus .