Authors:A. Gábor, V. Kovács, Zs. Fajcsák, and É. Martos
This study evaluated the diet of 615 professional athletes (PA) (306 males and 309 females; 21.3±5.5 years) compared with 312 age-matched non-athletes (NA), who participated in the 3
Hungarian National Dietary Survey in 2003. Dietary intake was assessed based on 3-day food record. In males, daily energy intake was 3513±1143 kcal and 2965±551 kcal for PA and NA, respectively (P<0.001). In females, there were no significant differences between PA and NA concerning the intake of energy. Athletes reported insufficient energy intake in both genders. Similarly to NA, PA failed to meet the adequate rate for macronutrients. Energy intake from carbohydrates was lower (47.3±6.6% in male and 49.2±7.3% in female) and from lipids higher (36.8±6% in male and 35.2±6.7% in female) than recommended. Athletes reported higher intakes of vitamins C and E, potassium and calcium than NA. Sodium and cholesterol intake was highly above the RDA in every group. Surprisingly, sodium intake of NA was even higher than PA in females (5535±1282 mg/day vs. 5068±2028 mg/day; P<0.05). In addition, iron intake of women was less than two-third of RDA in both groups. In summary, the dietary habits of elite athletes showed many misconceptions and lack of proper nutrition in terms of quality. These findings point out the need for adequate education of athletes and trainers to provide optimal food choice and for continuous monitoring of dietary pattern to maximize exercise performance and improve recovery.
Authors:V. Kovács, Zs. Fajcsák, A. Gábor, and É. Martos
This paper examines the effect of breakfast skipping on weight status and abdominal obesity in urban school children. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to all primary schools (n=18) in Óbuda, Budapest. A total of 3714 students (1860 boys, 1854 girls; age range: 7–15 years) were involved. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Data about obesity-related dietary habits (breakfast skipping, fruit and vegetable intake, number of meals, soft drinks consumption) were collected via self-administered questionnaire. One-fifth (21.3%) of the participants were regularly skipping breakfast. Frequency of regular breakfast decreased with age. Breakfast skipping was predictive for higher body mass index (BMI) and WC in a model that was adjusted for age, gender and all studied nutritional factors. Confirming these results, both BMI (19.3±4.0 vs. 18.1±3.7 kg m
; P<0.001) and WC (67.3±12.0 vs. 63.9±10.8 cm; P<0.001) were higher among breakfast skippers than in breakfast eaters. Odds ratios for breakfast skipping for being obese or abdominal obese were 1.59 (95%CI: 1.12–2.26) and 2.04 (95%CI: 1.57–2.65), respectively. Although prospective studies are needed to verify the causality between breakfast skipping and obesity, our findings support the importance of promoting regular breakfast consumption among school children.
Authors:Zs. Fajcsák, V. Kovács, A. Gábor, T. Szamosi, and É. Martos
This is a preliminary report on the benefit of a weekly low glycemic load (GL) diet intervention designed to positively effect body weight (BW) and body composition by reducing satiety in overweight/obese (BMI=28.38±5.86 kg m
) pre-pubertal children over a 12-week period. Thirteen otherwise healthy (11.46±1.94 years) children participated in the study. The low GL diet intervention included attending a weekly nutrition consultation, exchanging of at least 50% of the high glycemic index (GI) foods with low GI foods in the diet and portion control. Dietary changes were made based on weekly 4-day food-diaries over the 12-weeks. There were significant reductions in BW (68.08±22.03 vs. 65.64±22.12 kg), body mass index (BMI; 28.38±5.86 vs. 27.09±6.2 kg m
), fat mass (26.02±12.8 vs. 23.64±12.8 kg) % body fat (36.82±6.1 vs. 33.81±7.4), and circumference measurements; waist (95.73±14.01 vs. 90.76±14.26 cm); hip circumference (97.23±13.37 vs. 93.34±18.80 cm); thigh circumference (59.08±7.9 vs. 56.80±8.1 cm). The significant reduction of self-reported hunger level (3.46±0.92 vs. 1.51±1.11) was also observed. The 12-week low GL diet seems to be a practical, effective approach to treat obesity in children.
Authors:Y. Rharrabti, D. Miralles, V. Martos, and L. García Del Moral
The present work analysed whether grain weight is affected by changes in source:sink ratio in twenty-four durum wheat cultivars from Italy and Spain released through the 20
century grown under Mediterranean conditions. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted during the 2002 growing-season in southeastern Spain. Sink strength was modified by removing half of the spikelets, of one side of the spike, one week after anthesis. Spikelet trimming had different effects on both average grain weight and individual grain weight at different positions within the spike. While old cultivars did not respond positively to spikelet trimming, and appear to be mainly sink-limited, intermediate and modern cultivars from Spain increased their grain weight in response to sink reductions, suggesting co-limitation by the sink and source. On the contrary, grain weight of intermediate and modern Italian cultivars remained relatively unchanged suggesting a sink-limitation to grain yield. The differential response to source-sink manipulations observed between Italian and Spanish cultivars could be attributed to their different genetic background, which determines their level of adaptation to harsh Mediterranean environments.
Authors:C. Royo, D. Villegas, Y. Rharrabti, R. Blanco, V. Martos, and L. García del Moral
A set of ten durum wheat genotypes was grown in experiments conducted under four contrasting Mediterranean conditions during three years to assess the effect of latitude and water regime on grain growth and grain yield formation. The relationship between grain weight and accumulated growing degree-days (GDD) from anthesis was described by a logistic equation and final grain weight (
) and maximum rate (
) and duration (
) of grain filling were calculated from the fitted curves. Thousand kernel weight (TKW) was positively related to grain yield at both latitudes and water regimes, although the contribution of the number of grains per m
to final yield was only significant in the south, where environmental constraints likely limited the achievement of a large grain set. Differences in final grain weight between latitudes could be mostly explained by differences in the grain filling rate, while changes on
between water regimes were due to altered grain filling durations. Under northern conditions grain yield was positively associated to grain filling duration but negatively related to the maximum rate of grain filling, while in the south the coefficients of the grain filling curves had little or no effect on final yield. Reductions in grain yield under rainfed conditions were due to the fall in the number of grains per m
since TKW was not significantly affected by drought.