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  • Author or Editor: V. Molnár x
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This article outlines the carriers of four scholars coming from what is known as “historical Hungary”. The first out of the four is I. Zékány who was born in 1670 in Carpathian Ruthenia and studied in Prague and Vienna. In the first decades of the 1700s, Zékány became the tutor of the young princes of the Naryshkin family (the relatives of Peter I). Later on, Peter entrusted Zékány to teach the Tsar's grandson, future Emperor Peter II (1727-1730). The second person is T. I. Jankovic (1741-1814), considered to be “the father of Rus­sian public schools”. Jankovic studied in Sremski Karlovci, Bratislava (Preßburg/Pozsony) and Vienna and made his good professional reputation when he worked as the director of Serbian schools in Vojvodina and the chief of the school district of Timisoara (Temesvár). In 1782, upon the invitation of ?atherine II he arrived in Russia and subsequently played the major role in the reform of elementary education in that country. Jankovic also was the author of numerous handbooks and methodological instructions. In detail, the article discusses activity of M. Balugyánszky (1769-1847). This scholar is well known as the teacher of law of Tsar Nicolas I, as the first rector of the St. Petersburg University and as an editor of the famous collection of Russian laws (Polnoe Sobranie Zakonov). Finally, the article indicates the main stages of the carrier of Peter Lódy (1764-1829). In Russia, he was a professor of logic and a pioneer of woman education and published several influential works. The names of the four scholars and pedagogues mentioned above are almost completely absent from the Hungarian general studies on the history of culture and education. It would be desirable for these names to be given a proper place in the cultural history of both countries.

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In this article, an attempt has been made to present the life, extraordinary professional carrier and ramifying activity of Mihail Lomonosov, one of the most brilliant encyclopedic minds of the eighteenth-century Europe. The study is primarily focused on the research activity of Lomonosov but it also gives account of his personality and behavior. The author emphasizes Lomonosov's outstanding achievements in various branches of sciences and humanities. The present publication is specially relevant due to the two hundred fiftieth anniversary of the Moscow State University which is the most durable and fascinating creation of Lomonosov. In the final paragraphs, the author indicates those contemporaneous Hungarian scholars who were familiar with Lomonosov's works published in Latin and German.

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The objective of the investigations was to study the occurrence of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in aborted equine fetuses and in newborn foals and to compare the sensitivity of virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and histology in 101 cases and of fetal serology in 68 cases in the diagnosis of the infection. Out of the 93 aborted equine fetuses and 8 weak foals, 15 (14.9%) (14 fetuses and 1 foal) proved to be EHV-1 infected by immunohistochemical and 13 (12.9%) by virological investigation. Characteristic microscopic changes were seen in several organs in all cases, while intranuclear inclusion bodies could be found only in 25 (35.2%) of the 71 virus-positive tissue samples. Four (5.9%) cases proved to be positive by fetal serological investigation, but none of these cases showed any EHV-1 specific lesions and in none of these cases could the virus be detected by virus isolation or by immunohistochemistry. According to the results, fetal serology does not seem to be a useful test in virus-positive cases, while the immunohistochemical method seems to be a reliable and a slightly more sensitive method than virus isolation in the diagnosis of EHV-1 infection.

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Authors: A. Beregi, Cs. Székely, L. Békési, Judit Szabó, V. Molnár and K. Molnár

Radiodiagnostic methods have not been used previously for studying the anatomy and diseases of the swimbladder of freshwater fish species. In this study, the radiographic anatomy of the swimbladder and species-related differences in swimbladder structure were studied on plain radiographs taken of 12 Hungarian fish species of major economic importance. Changes observed by radiography were also studied by conventional parasitological methods. The radiodiagnostic method reported here appears to be a useful complement to diagnostic examinations that have been based merely on dissection so far. It enables evaluation of the pathological lesions in live condition, without causing damage to the fish.

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The second part of the review dealing with the diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds discusses the indications of radiological examination, the interpretation of radiographs taken of pathological lesions, and the differential diagnosis of such lesions. Radiology has paramount importance in the diagnosis of diseases affecting the skeletal, digestive, respiratory, urogenital and cardiovascular systems. Certain diseases (shortage of grits, ovarian cysts) cannot be recognised without radiography. Other conditions (e.g. Macaw Wasting Disease, renal tumours, egg retention) require this complementary diagnostic method for confirmation of a suspicion based upon the clinical signs. Radiographic examination is also indicated for follow-up of the surgical management of bone fractures and for facilitating the implantation of transponders aimed at individual identification of the birds.

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Two guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) with clinical signs of anorexia, weight loss, depression and abdominal enlargement were examined. During ultrasound examination, a fluid-filled anechogenic structure 3–4 cm in diameter, with echogenic spots and a highly echogenic thick wall, was found in the pelvic region in one case and connected to the liver in the other case. An abscess or a cyst was suspected and surgical treatment including laparotomy was performed. By histopathological examination performed after surgery, a liver abscess was diagnosed in one guinea pig and an abscess in the pelvic region in the other animal.

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Epipactis albensis Nováková et Rydlo (Orchidaceae), a species previously undocumented in the flora of Ukraine, was found in three localities in this country (in vicinity of Chetfalva, Fanchykovo and Drotyntsi, Zakarpattia district) in 2012. The species (originally described from the Czech Republic) recently has only been known to exist in seven Central European countries. The three Ukrainian populations described here stretch within the floodplain of river Tisza. Based on measurements in 14 localities in Hungary, Ukraine and Romania the species has a considerably wide soil reaction tolerance (from 3.6 to 7.2 pHKCl). The fruit set of this strictly autogamous species is reasonably high (78%). The mean±SD thousand seed weight of the species was 0.0030±0.0005 grams, therefore E. albenis is classified into the hypermeichor seed-weight class. Recent discoveries of the species in Romania and Ukraine raise the possibility of its occurrence in further European countries.

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Authors: Katalin Leiszter, Orsolya Galamb, Ferenc Sipos, Kinga Tóth, Gábor Valcz, V. Árpád Patai, Jeannette Molnár, Béla Molnár and Zsolt Tulassay

Az öregedés emésztőrendszeri hatásainak vizsgálata, molekuláris hátterének megismerése és bizonyos betegségek (mint például az idősek körében gyakrabban előforduló sporadikus vastagbélrák) kialakulásával való kapcsolatának feltérképezése új és ígéretes területe a molekuláris gasztroenterológiának. Ismert tény, hogy az emésztőrendszerben az öregedés során kialakuló molekuláris változások egy része (például a DNS-metiláció, a telomerrövidülés) a vastagbélrák bizonyos típusaiban is azonosítható. A sporadikus vastagbélrák epidemiológiai és molekuláris tulajdonságait ismerve továbbra is nyitott kérdés, hogy pontosan milyen molekuláris mechanizmusok, genetikai vagy génexpressziós szintű, illetve epigenetikai változások magyarázzák, hogy 45–50 éves kor felett a sporadikus vastagbélrákos megbetegedések száma ugrásszerűen megnő, és ezek vajon hogyan hozhatók összefüggésbe az öregedés mechanizmusával. Hosszú távon a megelőzés és a korszerű kezelés szempontjából is kiemelkedő jelentőségű lehet a megismert folyamatok célzott befolyásolása. Dolgozatunk az öregedés során a vastagbélben kialakuló mikroszkópos és molekuláris változásokat foglalja össze, és ezek lehetséges szerepét mutatja be az időskori sporadikus vastagbélrák kialakulásában.

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The taxonomy of the genus Bulbocodium , in which two European species, a smaller eastern (B. versicolor) and a more robust western (B. vernum) are included, has been controversial since the description of the eastern species in 1821. Nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA ITS1 and the entire chloroplast DNA ITS were sequenced from several European populations, from France to the Ukraine, and the leaf width of mature living individuals was measured and analysed by ANOVA and Tukey-test. Although the studied DNA regions proved to be invariable, leaf width shows extreme variability. We found no correlation between the leaf size of the individuals and the geographical position of the populations, and in addition, the sequenced DNA regions showed total uniformity. Thus, our results do not support the division of the genus Bulbocodium into two taxa, at least in the sampled area. The formerly described size variants can be treated taxonomically at the forma level.

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Authors: Anna E. Vojtkó, Judit Sonkoly, Balázs András Lukács and Attila Molnár V.

The reproductive success of orchids is traditionally estimated by determining the fruit-set of individuals. Here, we investigated both the fruit and the seed production of three orchid species and the factors that may affect individual fruit-set, like pollination strategy, individual traits or the annual amount of precipitation. The species [Dactylorhiza sambucina (L.) Soó, Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.) P. F. Hunt & Summerhayes and Platanthera bifolia (L.) L. C. M. Richard] were studied in three consecutive years (2010–2012) in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. All three species were proved to be non-autogamous by a bagging experiment. Data analyses showed significant differences between seed numbers but not between fruit-sets of species. There was no statistical difference in individual reproductive success between wet and dry years, however, the effect of the annual amount of precipitation is significant on the population level. Comparison of published fruit-set data revealed accordance with our results in P. bifolia, but not in D. sambucina and D. majalis. We assume that the surprisingly high fruit-set values of the two Dactylorhiza species may be due to the fact that the pollination crisis reported from Western European countries is not an actual problem in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary.

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