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This article outlines the carriers of four scholars coming from what is known as “historical Hungary”. The first out of the four is I. Zékány who was born in 1670 in Carpathian Ruthenia and studied in Prague and Vienna. In the first decades of the 1700s, Zékány became the tutor of the young princes of the Naryshkin family (the relatives of Peter I). Later on, Peter entrusted Zékány to teach the Tsar's grandson, future Emperor Peter II (1727-1730). The second person is T. I. Jankovic (1741-1814), considered to be “the father of Rus­sian public schools”. Jankovic studied in Sremski Karlovci, Bratislava (Preßburg/Pozsony) and Vienna and made his good professional reputation when he worked as the director of Serbian schools in Vojvodina and the chief of the school district of Timisoara (Temesvár). In 1782, upon the invitation of ?atherine II he arrived in Russia and subsequently played the major role in the reform of elementary education in that country. Jankovic also was the author of numerous handbooks and methodological instructions. In detail, the article discusses activity of M. Balugyánszky (1769-1847). This scholar is well known as the teacher of law of Tsar Nicolas I, as the first rector of the St. Petersburg University and as an editor of the famous collection of Russian laws (Polnoe Sobranie Zakonov). Finally, the article indicates the main stages of the carrier of Peter Lódy (1764-1829). In Russia, he was a professor of logic and a pioneer of woman education and published several influential works. The names of the four scholars and pedagogues mentioned above are almost completely absent from the Hungarian general studies on the history of culture and education. It would be desirable for these names to be given a proper place in the cultural history of both countries.

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In this article, an attempt has been made to present the life, extraordinary professional carrier and ramifying activity of Mihail Lomonosov, one of the most brilliant encyclopedic minds of the eighteenth-century Europe. The study is primarily focused on the research activity of Lomonosov but it also gives account of his personality and behavior. The author emphasizes Lomonosov's outstanding achievements in various branches of sciences and humanities. The present publication is specially relevant due to the two hundred fiftieth anniversary of the Moscow State University which is the most durable and fascinating creation of Lomonosov. In the final paragraphs, the author indicates those contemporaneous Hungarian scholars who were familiar with Lomonosov's works published in Latin and German.

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The objective of the investigations was to study the occurrence of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in aborted equine fetuses and in newborn foals and to compare the sensitivity of virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and histology in 101 cases and of fetal serology in 68 cases in the diagnosis of the infection. Out of the 93 aborted equine fetuses and 8 weak foals, 15 (14.9%) (14 fetuses and 1 foal) proved to be EHV-1 infected by immunohistochemical and 13 (12.9%) by virological investigation. Characteristic microscopic changes were seen in several organs in all cases, while intranuclear inclusion bodies could be found only in 25 (35.2%) of the 71 virus-positive tissue samples. Four (5.9%) cases proved to be positive by fetal serological investigation, but none of these cases showed any EHV-1 specific lesions and in none of these cases could the virus be detected by virus isolation or by immunohistochemistry. According to the results, fetal serology does not seem to be a useful test in virus-positive cases, while the immunohistochemical method seems to be a reliable and a slightly more sensitive method than virus isolation in the diagnosis of EHV-1 infection.

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Two guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) with clinical signs of anorexia, weight loss, depression and abdominal enlargement were examined. During ultrasound examination, a fluid-filled anechogenic structure 3–4 cm in diameter, with echogenic spots and a highly echogenic thick wall, was found in the pelvic region in one case and connected to the liver in the other case. An abscess or a cyst was suspected and surgical treatment including laparotomy was performed. By histopathological examination performed after surgery, a liver abscess was diagnosed in one guinea pig and an abscess in the pelvic region in the other animal.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
A. Beregi
,
Cs. Székely
,
L. Békési
,
Judit Szabó
,
V. Molnár
, and
K. Molnár

Radiodiagnostic methods have not been used previously for studying the anatomy and diseases of the swimbladder of freshwater fish species. In this study, the radiographic anatomy of the swimbladder and species-related differences in swimbladder structure were studied on plain radiographs taken of 12 Hungarian fish species of major economic importance. Changes observed by radiography were also studied by conventional parasitological methods. The radiodiagnostic method reported here appears to be a useful complement to diagnostic examinations that have been based merely on dissection so far. It enables evaluation of the pathological lesions in live condition, without causing damage to the fish.

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The second part of the review dealing with the diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds discusses the indications of radiological examination, the interpretation of radiographs taken of pathological lesions, and the differential diagnosis of such lesions. Radiology has paramount importance in the diagnosis of diseases affecting the skeletal, digestive, respiratory, urogenital and cardiovascular systems. Certain diseases (shortage of grits, ovarian cysts) cannot be recognised without radiography. Other conditions (e.g. Macaw Wasting Disease, renal tumours, egg retention) require this complementary diagnostic method for confirmation of a suspicion based upon the clinical signs. Radiographic examination is also indicated for follow-up of the surgical management of bone fractures and for facilitating the implantation of transponders aimed at individual identification of the birds.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Anna E. Vojtkó
,
Judit Sonkoly
,
Balázs András Lukács
, and
Attila Molnár V.

The reproductive success of orchids is traditionally estimated by determining the fruit-set of individuals. Here, we investigated both the fruit and the seed production of three orchid species and the factors that may affect individual fruit-set, like pollination strategy, individual traits or the annual amount of precipitation. The species [Dactylorhiza sambucina (L.) Soó, Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.) P. F. Hunt & Summerhayes and Platanthera bifolia (L.) L. C. M. Richard] were studied in three consecutive years (2010–2012) in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. All three species were proved to be non-autogamous by a bagging experiment. Data analyses showed significant differences between seed numbers but not between fruit-sets of species. There was no statistical difference in individual reproductive success between wet and dry years, however, the effect of the annual amount of precipitation is significant on the population level. Comparison of published fruit-set data revealed accordance with our results in P. bifolia, but not in D. sambucina and D. majalis. We assume that the surprisingly high fruit-set values of the two Dactylorhiza species may be due to the fact that the pollination crisis reported from Western European countries is not an actual problem in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary.

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Epipactis albensis Nováková et Rydlo (Orchidaceae), a species previously undocumented in the flora of Ukraine, was found in three localities in this country (in vicinity of Chetfalva, Fanchykovo and Drotyntsi, Zakarpattia district) in 2012. The species (originally described from the Czech Republic) recently has only been known to exist in seven Central European countries. The three Ukrainian populations described here stretch within the floodplain of river Tisza. Based on measurements in 14 localities in Hungary, Ukraine and Romania the species has a considerably wide soil reaction tolerance (from 3.6 to 7.2 pHKCl). The fruit set of this strictly autogamous species is reasonably high (78%). The mean±SD thousand seed weight of the species was 0.0030±0.0005 grams, therefore E. albenis is classified into the hypermeichor seed-weight class. Recent discoveries of the species in Romania and Ukraine raise the possibility of its occurrence in further European countries.

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The paper presents the results of a long-term monitoring of bacterial diseases of wheat in the steppe zone of the Southern Ural. A clear domination of the genus Xanthomonas over the genus Pseudomonas has been revealed (60 and 11% of the total samples collected, respectively). The frequency of a winter wheat infection with these two pathogens exceeded that of the spring wheat. The field phytosanitary assessment resulted in the observation of the earlier unknown manifestation of the Xanthomonas infection called as tip bacteriosis.

The frequency of wheat infection with Xanthomonas sp. almost did not depend on the relief type, observation period, and sowing date, though the frequency of infection observed for the northern slope and lowland clearly exceeded those observed for other relief types. The frequency of infection with Pseudomonas sp. clearly depended on the sowing date and local relief type reaching the maximum at the lowlands (19–27%), so this relief type can be considered as a “signal” point for the early diagnostics of this pathogen.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
G. Nyírő
,
G. Inczédy-Farkas
,
V. Reményi
,
A. Gál
,
Zs Pál
, and
Mária Molnár

Clopidogrel is an inhibitor of platelet-aggregation used in the prevention of secondary stroke. The molecule is activated by the cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) enzyme. The frequent CYP2C19*2 point mutation causes loss of enzyme function, a decreased (heterozygous form) or blocked (homozygous form) formation of the active molecule. Thus, for a patient harboring a mutated allele, clopidogrel does not provide effective protection against stroke. Multiple drugs inhibit the CYP2C19 enzyme and their simultaneous use with clopidogrel is especially hazardous for patients with genetically decreased enzyme activity. Frequency of the CYP2C19*2 is variable in different populations, highest rates were detected in some Asian groups. In our study the CYP2C19 genotype was determined in one Hungarian sample of 354 stroke patients and 221 healthy controls. Frequency of the minor allele was found to be 12.87% (12.85% in stroke patients, 12.89% in healthy controls). The proportion of the homozygous CYP2C19*2 variant causing total loss of gene function was 1.74%, rate of the heterozygous allele causing reduced enzyme activity was 22.26% in the total population. Our results for the allele frequencies of the CYP2C19*2 gene are similar to those found in other Caucasian populations. In conclusion, the homozygous mutation, causing ineffectiveness of clopidogrel is relatively rare. However, the heterozygous form in which interaction of CYP2C19 inhibitors causes further decrease in the genetically impaired enzyme activity is present in every fifth drug-taking patient. Based on our findings, we would like to emphasize that it is important to adjust individually antiplatelet treatment in ischemic stroke patients and to take into consideration genetic factors as well as drugs taken for comorbid conditions.

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