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  • Author or Editor: V. Orosz x
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Species richness and composition of cicada (Auchenorrhyncha) assemblages were investigated in apple and pear orchards subject to different pesticide management intensities (conventional commercial orchards with a full spray programme of fungicides and broad-spectrum insecticides, Integrated Pest Management, organic and abandoned orchards) in Hungary in 1999, 2000 and 2001. Sampling was done with Malaise traps, by sweep netting and beating nets in ten apple and three pear orchards in seven different regions of Hungary. Altogether 15 686 individuals were collected in the orchards investigated, belonging to 114 species, representing 20% of the cicada fauna of Hungary. The most common species, in decreasing order of relative abundance, were: Eupteryx atropunctata (Goeze), Empoasca solani (Curtis), Edwardsiana crataegi (Douglas), Kybos virgator (Ribaut), Empoasca decipiens Paoli, Zyginidia pullula (Boheman), Eupteryx calcarata Ossiannilsson, Kybos populi (Edwards), Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), Edwardsiana rosae (Linnaeus) and Ribautiana tenerrima (Herrich - Schäffer). The species which are rare in Hungary and therefore are interesting in respect of faunal research were: Enantiocephalus cornutus (Herrich - Schäffer), Rhoananus hypochlorus (Fieber), Metalimnus formosus (Boheman), Phlogotettix cyclops (Mulsant and Rey), Ossiannilssonola callosa (Then) and Mocuellus metrius (Flor). The mean proportion of males was 0.82 and 0.44 in the samples collected by Malaise trapping and sweep netting, respectively.

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The species richness and composition ofAuchenorrhyncha assemblages in three apple orchards in Kent and East Sussex, England was surveyed in 2001 and 2002. Planthoppers, leafhoppers and froghoppers were collected from the tree canopies using yellow sticky traps and a tree beating technique, and from the grass alleyways between the trees using sweep-netting. As a result of intensive sampling, 67 species were collected in an experimental apple orchard at East Malling Research, with a further 30 and 36 species in two organic apple orchards, situated near Marden and Robertsbridge, respectively. A total of 77 species was recorded in the survey. The collection methods applied determined substantially the size and species composition of the samples, the relative abundance of the Auchenorrhyncha species and proportion of males. The most common species collected in the canopy, in decreasing order were: Edwardsiana rosae, Empoasca decipiens, Ribautiana debilis, Edwardsiana crataegi, Empoasca vitis, Philaenus spumarius and Tachycixius pilosus .

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The required quality of compost depends on its final use. All the requirements must be focused on obtaining a product with an acceptable aspect and smell, which is hygienic and free from (or with only traces of) impurities and contaminants. The concept of compost quality especially relevant when the compost is used directly, as a substrate for seedling production or in pots; these applications need high-quality compost. The quality of compost based on concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants and on the absence of pathogens. The aim of the experiment was to prove the absence of the risk using this material in cereal production. The results of the last years suggest that there was no toxic element accumulation in the grain yield of triticale plants.Monitoring of phatogen reduction shows the conventional treatment by mesophilic digestion gives a limited reduction in the content of phatogens. The potential toxic effect of anaerobic digestate was measured in biotest with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) plants. The rapid biotests proved toxic reduction of plant growth and root development at high rate application of digestate in the first days of germination. The reason of the reduction of root could be explained with the high ammonium concentration of digestate.

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