Authors:Vadim V. Krongauz, Yann-Per Lee, and Anthony Bourassa
Extensively studied thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) occurs with formation of free hydrogen chloride and conjugated double bonds absorbing light in visible region. Thermogravimetric monitoring of PVC blends degradation kinetics by the loss of HCl is often complicated by evaporation and degradation of plasticizers and additives. Spectroscopic PVC degradation kinetics monitoring by absorbance of forming conjugated polyenes is specific and should not be affected by plasticizers loss. The kinetics of isothermal degradation monitored by thermal gravimetric analysis in real time was compared with batch data obtained by UV/Visible absorption spectroscopy. Effects of plasticizer on kinetics of polyene formation were examined. Thermal degradation of PVC films plasticized with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and 1,2,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, tri-(3-ethylhexyl) ester (TOTM) was monitored by conjugated double bonds light absorption at 350 nm at 160, 180, and 200 °C. Plasticizer-free PVC powder degradation kinetics and that of plasticized films were also obtained thermogravimetrically at temperatures ranging from 160 to 220 °C. Plasticizer-free PVC powder degradation and spectroscopically monitored degradation of plasticized PVC films occurred with the same apparent activation energy of ≈150 kJ mol−1. No difference in degradation kinetics of films plasticized with DEHP and TOTM was detected.
Authors:Ž. Grabarević, P. Džaja, J. Perić, V. Šerman, Z. Biđin, H. Mazija, N. Mas, Ž. Mikulec, K. Čuljak, Z. Šimec, and B. Njari
The work describes the effects of cimetidine on stress-induced gizzard erosions (Experiment A) and the influence of the long-term application (42 days) of the same drug on weight gain and feed consumption during broiler fattening (Experiment B). For Experiment A, 60 male, three-day-old chicks were divided into two groups: C (n = 30) - control chicks treated with 0.5 ml saline; CIM (n = 30) - chicks treated with cimetidine in a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) in-tragastrically. All chicks were stressed using a modified water-immersion stress method according to which the chicks, after 24 h of feed deprivation, were immersed in tap water (17 °C) for a few seconds. Under chloroform anaesthesia ten chicks from each group were killed 1, 2 and 3 h after the stressing. The morphometric analysis of gizzard erosion (GE) and histopathological examinations of gizzards were performed for each chick. In Experiment B, 32 one-day-old broilers of both sexes were used. The control group was untreated (n = 16) while the CIM group (n = 16) was fed the same diet supplemented with 10 mg of cimetidine per kilogram of feed throughout the fattening period (42 days). The results of Experiment A showed decreased mean length of the GE in the cimetidine-treated birds as compared with the GE lesions of the controls. In Experiment B, the treated chicks had reduced liveweight (1835.1 g), carcass weight (1474.6 g) and increased feed consumption (2115 g of feed per kilogram of weight gain) compared to the controls in which the same parameters were 1898.5 g, 1574.2 g and 1797 g, respectively. The results show that while stress-induced GE of chicks can be medicated pharmacologically, long-term application of the same substance impairs the results of fattening.