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In economics literature, a number of authors emphasize the need to study both domestic and foreign enterprises in order to properly grasp the effect of foreign direct investment on the local economy. Differences between foreign and domestic enterprises stem from the fact that multinational enterprises operate in a global network extending into many countries, which most certainly exerts influence on all aspects of their production activity. This paper presents a comparative analysis of performance of domestic and three types of foreign enterprises in Hungary. Total-factor pro- ductivity, factor intensity, wages, export intensity, profitability, as well as the effective rate of tax are examined by the combined tools of comparison, regression analysis and Wilcoxon test for data of the whole economy of Hungary. While foreign firms are found to contribute to the revitalization of the economy as far as capital intensity, productivity, export performance and level of wages are concerned, they do not yet seem to produce profitably.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Gabriella Gombos Császár, V. Bajsz, E. Sió, V. Steinhausz Tóth, B. Schmidt, L. Szekeres, and J. Kránicz

As a prevention, a physically active lifestyle including the performance of weight-bearing exercises is important to enhance and maintain bone mineral content. Fifty young women were selected for the study. Twenty-five women carried out a specific training directed by a physiotherapist in the training group (TG), while 25 women were walking for 60 minutes in the control group (CG). Total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP and BALP) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (CTX) levels were measured at the beginning and at the end of exercise. The most remarkable change was seen in CTX levels (TG −28.89%, p < 0.001; CG −52.54%, p < 0.001), and there was also a significant difference in the values of CTX between TG and CG (p = 0.012). Therefore, walking more significantly reduced the level of CTX than special exercise. The decrease of BALP in TG was considerable but not significant (TG −4.63%, p = 0.091), while BALP levels dropped significantly in CG (−7.65%, p = 0.011), and there was a non-significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.22). Regarding the ALP level, a significant reduction was detected in TG and CG (−6.84%, p < 0.001 vs. −4.57%, p < 0.001). This study reveals that the 60-minute, middle-intensity training and the brisk walking have an immediate effect on bone metabolic markers.

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