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Inorganic particulates in removal of toxic heavy metal ions

IV. Efficient removal of zinc ions from aqueous solution by hydrous zirconium oxide

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: S. Mishra, V. Singh, and D. Tiwari

Abstract  

Adsorption behavior of zinc ions on hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) in aqueous solution has been studied as a function of concentration (10–2–10–8M), temperature (303–333 K) and pH 3–8 of adsorptive solution applying radiotracer technique. The kinetics of adsorption follows first order rate law and agrees well with the classical Freundlich isotherm in the entire range of adsorptive concentration. The removal was found to be increasing with pH of the adsorptive solution while it was suppressed in the presence of acid concentrations. The overall process is found to be endothermic and irreversible in nature.

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The aim of this work was to simultaneously separate, identify, and characterize all the degradation products (DPs) of atorvastatin (AT) and olmesartan (OM) formed under different stress conditions as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q1A(R2) guideline. AT showed labile behavior in acidic, basic, neutral, and oxidative stress and led to the formation of two DPs, while OM degraded under acidic, basic, and neutral and resulted in the formation of four DPs. All the stressed samples of AT and OM were resolved on a C-18 column in single run on a gradient liquid chromatographic (LC) mode. A complete mass fragmentation pathway of both the drugs was established with the help of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) studies. The fragmentation was further supported by MSn studies, and for AT, it was carried out up to MS6, while for OM, it was up to MS5. Then, the stressed samples were analyzed by LC–MS/MS to get the fragmentation patterns of DPs. LC–MS/MS data helped to propose chemical structure of all the DPs. Based on this entire information, degradation pathway of both the drugs was established. The developed method has shown excellent linearity over the range of 10 to 150 μg/mL of OM and AT. The correlation coefficient (r 2) for OM and AT is 0.999 and 0.998, respectively. The main recovery value of OM and AT ranged from 99.97% to 100.54%, while the limit of detection (LOD) for OM and AT was 0.018 and 0.021 μg/mL, and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was found to be 0.051 and 0.063 μg/mL. Finally, the in-silico carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and hepatotoxicity predictions of AT, OM, and all the DPs were performed by using toxicity prediction softwares, viz., TOPKAT, LAZAR, and Discovery Studio ADMET, respectively.

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Iron and zinc deficiency affects more than half of the world population due to low inherent micronutrient content of cereals and other staple foods. The micronutrient deficiency is further aggravated by poor availability of these minerals in calcareous soils and their uptake by crop plants. Series of available wheat-Aegilops addition lines were evaluated for identification of alien chromosomes carrying genes for high grain iron and zinc concentrations and release of mugineic acid(s) facilitating micronutrient uptake under their deficient conditions. Addition lines of chromosome 2Sv, 2Uv and 7Uv of Ae. peregrina, 2Sl and 7Sl of Ae. longissima and 2U of Ae. umbellulata were found to carry genes for high grain iron whereas the group 7 chromosomes had genes for higher grain zinc. Higher release of mugineic acid (MA) under iron deficient condition was observed in addition lines of chromosome 2Sv, 2Uv, 4Uv and 7Sv of Ae. peregrina, 2Sl and 6Sl of Ae. longissima and 2U and 5U of Ae. umbellulata. Higher grain and root iron concentration and MA(s) release under iron sufficient condition in the group 2 chromosome addition lines suggests that their high grain iron may be attributed to the higher uptake of the micronutrients through MA(s). These addition lines with two- to threefold high grain iron and zinc concentration could be used for precise introgression of genes into elite wheat cultivars for enhanced uptake of these micronutrients by wheat plants in problematic soils and their biofortification in grains.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. Sareen, N. Bhusal, G. Singh, B.S. Tyagi, V. Tiwari, G.P. Singh, and A.K. Sarial

Heat stress is a matter of a great concern for the wheat crop. Heat stress usually either hastens crop development or shortens the grain filling duration, which severely reduces grain yield. Being a complex trait, understanding the genetics and gene interactions of stress tolerance are the two primary requirements for improving yield levels. Genetic analysis through generation mean analysis helps to find out the nature of gene actions involved in a concerned trait by providing an estimate of main gene effects (additive and dominance) along with their digenic interactions (additive × additive, additive × dominance, and dominance × dominance). In the present investigation, we elucidated the inheritance pattern of different yield contributing traits under heat stress using different cross combinations which could be helpful for selecting a suitable breeding strategy. Thus six generations of five crosses were sown normal (non-stress, TS) and late (heat stress, LS) in a randomized block design with three replications during two crop seasons. The model was not adequate for late sown conditions indicating the expression of epistatic genes under stress conditions. The traits i.e. Days to heading (DH), Days to anthesis (DA), Days to maturity (DM), Grain filling duration (GFD), Grain yield (GY), Thousand grain weight (TGW), Grain weight per spike (GWS) and Heat susceptibility index (HSI) under heat stress conditions were found under the control of additive gene action with dominance × dominance interaction, additive gene action with additive × dominance epistatic effect, dominance gene action with additive × additive interaction effect, additive and dominance gene action with dominance × dominance interaction effect, additive gene action with additive × dominance epistatic effect, additive gene action with additive × additive interaction effect and dominance gene action with additive × additive interaction effect, respectively.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. L. Krishnamurthy, S. K. Sharma, D. K. Sharma, P. C. Sharma, Y. P. Singh, V. K. Mishra, D. Burman, B. Maji, B. K. Bandyopadhyay, S. Mandal, S. K. Sarangi, R. K. Gautam, P. K. Singh, K. K. Manohara, B. C. Marandi, D. P. Singh, G. Padmavathi, P. B. Vanve, K. D. Patil, S. Thirumeni, O. P. Verma, A. H. Khan, S. Tiwari, M. Shakila, A. M. Ismail, G. B. Gregorio, and R. K. Singh

Genotype × environment (G × E) interaction effects are of special interest for identifying the most suitable genotypes with respect to target environments, representative locations and other specific stresses. Twenty-two advanced breeding lines contributed by the national partners of the Salinity Tolerance Breeding Network (STBN) along with four checks were evaluated across 12 different salt affected sites comprising five coastal saline and seven alkaline environments in India. The study was conducted to assess the G × E interaction and stability of advanced breeding lines for yield and yield components using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. In the AMMI1 biplot, there were two mega-environments (ME) includes ME-A as CARI, KARAIKAL, TRICHY and NDUAT with winning genotype CSR 2K 262; and ME-B as KARSO, LUCKN, KARSA, GOA, CRRI, DRR, BIHAR and PANVE with winning genotypes CSR 36. Genotypes CSR 2K 262, CSR 27, NDRK 11-4, NDRK 11-3, NDRK 11-2, CSR 2K 255 and PNL 1-1-1-6-7-1 were identified as specifically adapted to favorable locations. The stability and adaptability of AMMI indicated that the best yielding genotypes were CSR 2K 262 for both coastal saline and alkaline environments and CSR 36 for alkaline environment. CARI and PANVEL were found as the most discernible environments for genotypic performance because of the greatest GE interaction. The genotype CSR 36 is specifically adapted to coastal saline environments GOA, KARSO, DRR, CRRI and BIHAR and while genotype CSR 2K 262 adapted to alkaline environments LUCKN, NDUAT, TRICH and KARAI. Use of most adapted lines could be used directly as varieties. Using them as donors for wide or specific adaptability with selection in the target environment offers the best opportunity for widening the genetic base of coastal salinity and alkalinity stress tolerance and development of adapted genotypes. Highly stable genotypes can improve the rice productivity in salt-affected areas and ensure livelihood of the resource poor farming communities.

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