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  • Author or Editor: V.M. Nascimento x
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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, V, Zn in five varieties of Brazilian corn, resulting from the studies carried out in order to increase their protein contents. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 15%, except for Cu, I and S. Sensitivity and detection limit were also determined. Besides, tryptophan contents were determined. It was observed that the tryptophan content in improved corn samples was twice as large as in the normal samples. However, the same ratio was not observed in the inorganic element contents.

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Microalgae are promising alternatives to sequestration of carbon and reduction of environmental problems, e.g. the greenhouse effect and industrial water pollution. Depending on the growth conditions, microalgae can differ in their metabolism products, leading them to grow at different rates. Intracellular reactions and nutritional requirements from cell metabolism, as well as biomass composition, may vary in function of the temperature. In this study, the biotechnological potential of three microalgae strains from the species was evaluated in terms of growth, biomass composition, fatty acid profile, and chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. Each of the three species demonstrated different potential depending on their metabolisms: Scenedesmus spinosus presented fastest growth and had the highest protein content (52.99%), Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata presented the highest content of lipid extracted (26.51%), and Scenedesmus acuminatus showed increased production of chlorophyll (5.25 mg l–1) and carotenoid (1.02 mg l–1) pigments.

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Authors: A. E. S. Vives, S. Moreira, S. M. B. Brienza, O. L. A. Zucchi and V. F. Nascimento Filho

Summary  

The objective of this study was to use synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) for the determination of metals and other elements in food available to the population in commercial establishments, in order to evaluate the risks of contamination by these products. The analyzed species were vegetables, leafy vegetables, fruits, cereal and grain. The results indicated that some species were contaminated by Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb with concentrations much higher than the reference values.

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Authors: M. S. Blonski, C. R. Appoloni, P. S. Parreira, P. H. A. Arag?o and V. F. Nascimento Filho

Summary  

Energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) was employed to study the effects of the fumagina disease through the elementary chemical composition of leaves. The experimental setup consisted of a Mo X-ray tube (Kµ=17.44 keV) with Zr filter and a Si(Li) detector. The measurements were performed with infected and healthy leaves of citric plants. The elements Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. For all the elements of interest the measured detection limit was at the order of mg . g-1.

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Summary  

This study uses fishes as indicators of metal contamination in the Piracicaba Basin and also for evaluation of the risks to human health by the ingestion of fish contaminated by metals and other potentially toxic elements. Based on total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba were detected and evaluated in the muscle and viscus (liver, intestine and stomach) of fish collected in the Piracicaba River.

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Authors: S. Moreira, A. E. S. Vives, V. F. Nascimento Filho, O. L. A. D. Zucchi and S. M. B. Brienza

Summary  

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to evaluate the availability and contamination of inorganic elements in sediment samples from Atibaia River, located at Piracicaba Basin, near the Campinas region, São Paulo State, Brazil. The total contents (geological matrix) and the concentration of elements weakly linked to the sediment (available fraction) were determined. The availability of these elements was evaluated through the ratios between available fractions and total contents. The results showed that the elements Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn are easily available in the aquatic environment.

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Authors: S. Moreira, A. E. S. Vives, O. L. A. D. Zucchi, E. F. O. de Jesus, V. F. Nascimento Filho and S. M. B. Brienza

Summary  

In this study the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian legislation and the nutritional values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL, USA). The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 ml of beers containing an internal standard used to correct geometry effects was analyzed without pretreatment. The measuring time was 100 seconds and the detection limits obtained varied from 1 mg . l-1 for Mn and Fe to 15 mg . l-1 for P.

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Authors: P. S. Epaminondas, K. L. G. V. Araújo, J. A. Nascimento, M. C. D. Silva, R. Rosenhaim, L. E. B. Soledade, N. Queiroz, A. L. Souza, I. M. G. Santos and A. G. Souza

Abstract

Physico-chemical properties, spectroscopy, and thermal analyses were used aiming at evaluating the influence of toasting and of the flaxseed variety on thermo-oxidative behavior of flaxseed oils. Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were associated to gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and UV–Vis spectroscopy, as well as to physico-chemical analyses to characterize the oils obtained from raw and toasted flaxseeds. No meaningful differences in the thermal and oxidative stabilities were noticed comparing oils obtained from the brown and the golden flaxseeds. Nevertheless, the UV–Vis spectra indicated that both flaxseed oils were at the beginning of the oxidation process. The previous toasting of the seeds led to a higher oxidation for both varieties being harmful to the flaxseed oil quality.

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