Baking bells (or baking lids) were actually very simple ovens that were suitable for baking bread, meat and fish. This method of food preparation was practiced since prehistory in the Mediterranean world and we can find descriptions of baking bells in the Bible and in the works of the writers of antiquity. This individual mode of baking bread became especially widespread during late antiquity. In some regions, the use of baking bells survived either owing to a general stagnation (as in the Balkans or the Alpine lands), or to unusual living conditions (as in the Roman military camps of the Augustan period and in the medieval Ottoman-period border forts in Hungary). Their increasingly frequent use in late antiquity was a reflection of economic decline and the disappearance of urban bakeries. At the same time, the adoption of baking bells by the Barbarian peoples (such as the Avars and the ancient Hungarians) settling on the fringes of the Mediterranean world can be seen as a cultural advance and the adoption of local traditions. Baking bells were still used in the Carpathian Basin as late as the 19th century and they can be found in some areas of the Balkans even today.
The west to east oriented graves of an Early Avar period cemetery came to light at Szihalom-Budaszög in 1996. Two clay mugs turned on a fast wheel bespeak local Gepidic ceramic traditions. A wooden amulet capsule can likewise be linked to Pannonian and Transylvanian communities with a Merovingian culture. The gold and gilt bronze mounts of the capsule suggest the burial of an individual from the community’s elite. The gold mounts of the capsule are decorated with four masks arranged in a cross-like design. The stylistic and iconographic parallels to the masks point towards Italy and the regions north of the Alps. The capsule provides evidence for syncretic beliefs: the amulet was probably believed to have both pagan magical and Christian protective properties. The small cemetery was used by a local Gepidic community with good contacts with Western Europe living under the overlordship of the Avar Khaganate.
Authors:Tivadar Vida, Pál Raczky, István Fodor, and István Vörös
Raczky Pál, Vida
Tivadar: Bóna István (Heves 1930. február 10.-Dunaújváros 2001; B. Horváth
Jolán: Bóna István irodalmi munkássága június 4.); Fodor István: Alojz
Habovštiak (1932-2000); Fodor István: Balaguri Eduárd (1931-2004); Vörös
István: Kretzoi Miklós (1907-2005)
Authors:Raczky Pál, Borhy László, Vida Tivadar, Kalla Gábor, V. Szabó Gábor, and Bartus Dávid
The Director of the EötvösLoránd Research Network, Miklós Maróthi initiated the preparation of a medium-term archaeological strategy that would ensure the identification, documentation, salvaging and safeguarding of the archaeological heritage as well as its successful assessment, careful preservation and efficient transmission. The proposal drawn up in the Institute of Archaeological Sciences of the Eötvös Loránd University covers the options and the priorities of Hungarian archaeological scholarship. During the past decades, the prospects of Hungarian archaeology have been determined by an often controversial and hasty legislation, while a constantly changing institutional background forced Hungarian archaeology to cope as best as it could amidst a deteriorating climate, leading to a serious loss of prestige. In order to provide a reliable narrative and reconstruction of the past, the study identifies and reviews the tasks involved in the management of the Hungarian archaeological heritage with a view to the current internationally accepted standards regarding documentation and assessment, safeguarding and presentation in museums, and its role in university training and in engaging the public. This study is intended as a keynote paper – we hope that our colleagues and educated compatriots who are apprehensive over the fate of the archaeological heritage will respond and offer their opinion.
Authors:István Hartyánszky, Gábor Veres, Tivadar Hüttl, Endre Moravcsik, Sándor Kayser, László Daróczi, Kata Vida, Ildikó Gálffy, László Szudi, and Zoltán Szabolcs
A szívműtéteket követő mély sternomediastinitis gyakorisága 0,5–5% közötti, melynek mortalitása akár az 50%-ot is elérheti. A szerzők egy 67 éves nőbeteg esetén keresztül számolnak be szívműtétet követően kialakult súlyos sternumdehiscentia kezelésében alkalmazott lemezes osteosynthesis első magyarországi alkalmazásáról. Az ortopéd és traumatológiai sebészetben már régóta ismert módszer alkalmazása ezen betegcsoportban lehetővé teszi az anatómiai repositiót és a csontok maximális nyugalomba helyezését. A Titanium Sternal Fixation® Synthes® rendszer akár teljes vagy részleges sternumhiányok, darabos törések esetén is gyorsan és hatékonyan eredményezheti a betegek gyógyulását.