Authors:Alica Letnická, Viera Karaffová, Mikuláš Levkut, Viera Revajová and Róbert Herich
Campylobacteriosis is mainly caused by infection with Campylobacter jejuni following consumption or handling of Campylobacter-contaminated poultry meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium AL41 on TGF-β4 and IL-17 expression and on immunocompetent cell distribution after C. jejuni infection in broiler chicken, as a second part of the previous study of Karaffová et al. (2017). Accordingly, day-old chicks were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 10 chicks each (n = 10): control (C), E. faecium AL41 (EFAL41), C. jejuni CCM6191 (CJ), and combined E. faecium AL41 + C. jejuni CCM6191 (EFAL41 + CJ). Samples from the caecum were collected on days 4 and 7 post Campylobacter infection (dpi), for the isolation of mRNA of TGF-β4, IL-17 and for immunohistochemistry. The relative mRNA expression of TGF-β4 was upregulated in the combined (EFAL41 + CJ) group compared to other groups during both samplings, but the expression of IL-17 was downregulated. Similarly, the highest density of CD3+ was detected in the combined group at 7 dpi, but the number of IgA+ cells was increased in both groups with EFAL41. It was concluded that the EFAL41 probiotic E. faecium strain can modulate the expression of selected cytokines (upregulation of TGF-β4 but downregulation of IL-17 relative expression), and activate IgA-producing cells in the caeca of chicks infected with C. jejuni CCM6191.
Authors:L'. Leng, M. Štefkovič, Viera Révajová, - Halanová and M. Horváth
Encephalitozoonosis is an opportunistic infection in animals and humans. Its clinical form is observed in immunosuppressed hosts. We studied the occurrence of the manifest form of rabbit microsporidiosis under cyclophosphamide immunomodulation in 40 New Zealand rabbits. The experimental animals were intraperitoneally infected with 5 Ã 107Encephalitozoon cuniculispores. Two weeks after infection the animals were treated intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide, first with 50 mg/kg and then with 15 mg/kg weekly during the 12-week experimental period. Positive controls were eitherE. cuniculi-infected or cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed animals. The negative control rabbits remained untreated. Both clinical signs of encephalitozoonosis and depression of peripheral blood cell count developed between weeks 4 and 6 in the experimental animals which died during week 6 of the experiment. No clinical signs compatible with encephalitozoonosis were observed in any of the controls. The results suggest that immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide can give rise to a lethal form of encephalitozoonosis.
Authors:Viera Revajová, Mikuláš Levkut, Mária Levkutová, Radka Bořutová, Ľubomíra Grešaková, Božena Košiková and Ľubomír Leng
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of lignin supplementation of a diet contaminated with the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on peripheral blood leukocytes and duodenal immunocompetent cells in broiler chickens. From day 1 after hatching, all chickens were fed an identical control diet for two weeks. Then chickens of Group 1 continued to be fed the control diet, whereas Group 2 was fed the same diet supplemented with lignin at 0.5% level. Simultaneously, Group 3 started to receive a diet contaminated with DON (2.95 mg kg−1) and ZEA (1.59 mg kg−1), while Group 4 received an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin for further two weeks. Samples of blood and duodenal tissue were collected from 6 birds of each group at 4 weeks of age. Neither counts of white blood cells nor phagocytic function in the peripheral blood were significantly affected in the mycotoxin- and/or lignin-treated birds. As compared to the control, increased numbers of IgM-bearing cells were found in the peripheral blood in Group 3 fed the contaminated diet (P < 0.05) and in Group 4 given the contaminated diet supplemented with lignin (P < 0.01). While the contaminated diet led to reduced numbers of duodenal CD4+ cells, in Group 2 treated only with lignin the number of duodenal CD4+ cells was increased. Lignin enrichment of the contaminated diet did not eliminate the mycotoxin-induced reduction in the number of duodenal CD4+ cells. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of lignin as an indigestible compound to poultry feed may increase the density of some intestinal immunocompetent cells without exerting effects on that in the peripheral blood. However, when added to a diet contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, lignin did not prevent the mycotoxin-induced changes in the numbers of blood and intestinal immunocompetent cells.
Authors:Viera Revajová, D. Magic, M. Levkut, Ĺ. Bindas, M. Horváth, R. Kašteĺ, J. Pistl and J. Šajbidor
Oral administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to piglets slightly enhances the immune response. As compared to the control, in the experimental piglets the absolute values of monocytes in the peripheral blood were significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the metabolic activity of phagocytes and the number of lymphocytes within the individual subpopulations were slightly higher. The level of growth factors, determined on the basis of somatomedin in the blood serum, was significantly higher in the experimental group (P < 0.05). n-3 PUFA interfere with the synthesis of prostaglandins and influence the metabolism of fatty acids. This finding may contribute to the therapy of inflammatory processes influencing immune and growth factors in piglets.
Authors:Mikuláš Levkut, Juraj Pistl, Andrea Lauková, Viera Revajová, Robert Herich, Zuzana Ševčíková, Viola Strompfová, Renáta Szabóová and Tatiana Kokinčáková
The protective effect of
EF 55 against
serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4) was studied in 1-day-old chicks. The EF 55 strain (isolated and characterised by the authors earlier) was applied daily (1.10
CFU/0.2 ml PBS) for 7 days. Oral inoculation of the SE PT4 strain was performed on day 8 in a single dose of 5.10
CFU/0.2 ml PBS. The experiment lasted for 21 days. Samples were collected on day 1 of the experiment to verify the absence of
, on day 8 to check colonisation of EF 55 and immunological status in experimental birds, and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14 after SE PT4 infection of chicks. Strain EF 55 sufficiently colonised the digestive tract of chicks after 7 days of application. The highest numbers of EF 55 in the faeces of chicks were observed before SE infection and persisted to day 6 post infection (p.i.) in both the EF and EF+SE groups. PCR confirmed the identity of the EF 55 strain. The counts of SE PT4 strain in faeces of the EF+SE group were significantly reduced in comparison to those in the SE group on days 2 and 14 p.i. (P < 0.01). The significant reduction of salmonellae in the caecum was recorded at the end of the experiment (day 14 p.i.) in the EF+SE group in comparison to the SE group (P < 0.01). At day 4 p.i., colonies of
. Enteritidis PT4 were found in the liver of chicks of the SE group in a higher concentration than in chicks of the EF+SE group (P < 0.001). Salmonellae were isolated from the liver until days 8 and 6 p.i. in the SE and EF+SE groups, respectively. The mean values of actual lymphocyte subpopulations in the blood and the relative percentage of caecal intraepithelial lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4, CD8, CD44, TCR, MHC II and IgM) were not influenced at a statistically significant level by the application of the EF 55 and/or the SE PT4 strain. The results demonstrate the antimicrobial effect of
EF 55 against
. Enteritidis PT4.