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Bár kortárs egyházi építészetről lehetséges a XX. századi liturgikus változások fényében is beszélni, e változások okát közvetlenül a modern ember szent-élményének átalakulásában találjuk. A szent-élmény részben a hely szellemének felfogása, értelmezése és szimbolikus megjelenítése által kapcsolódik az ember földi életéhez, így a szakralitás átalakulása a genius loci ontológiai történetébe illeszkedik. A heideggeri ontológia, Christian Norberg-Schulz építészeti fenomenológiája és a kritikai regionalizmus építészeti fordulatának Kenneth Frampton által javasolt princípiumai egymással találkoznak. Közös részüknek a Martin Heidegger, Gottfried Semper és Norberg-Schulz által is felvetett építészeti négyességek (fourfold) ontológiai és építészetelméleti párhuzamaiban jelentkező tektonika fogalma ad alapot, amely egyúttal az építészet belső szakralitására is rávilágít. A hely szellemében működő immanens szent-élmény és a szent vallási-transzcendentális felfogásának találkozása csupán kevés esetben tudott megvalósulni úgy, mint Jřrn Utzon, Mario Botta vagy Peter Zumthor egyházi építészetében, akiknek értékelését illetően kivételes konszenzus alakult ki az egyes építészetteoretikusok között. Az itt bemutatásra kerülő műveik a modern szakralitás egy-egy aspektusát elevenítik meg, amelyek megértéséhez szükséges korunk spirituális indíttatású építészetét a liturgikusnál mélyebb, építészeti fundamentumokhoz visszavezetni. Új kísérletet teszünk az ontológia, a tektonika, az építészeti kritika és a megvalósult épület közötti hídverésre, amelyek e tanulmányban a szakrális építészet szellemébe konvergálnak.

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Twenty-nine years ago the idea of critical regionalism was presented by Kenneth Frampton in his non-conventional essay Toward a Critical Regionalism. Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance (1983), preceded by a list of architects considered to be answers to globalism. A return to the genius loci seeking the roots of a genuine architecture proposed the necessity of another modernism, but it proved too academic to address the architects in praxis. ‘Resistance’ could not define revolutionary alternatives to the textbook avant-gardes without revising the meaning of architectural authenticity. Critical regionalist tenets need to be returned to the discussion in order to break through the concept’s still theoretical position as an impact of, among others Walter Benjamin’s definition of the aura. Benjamin’s recognition relates to Gernot Böhme’s views on the atmosphere, which places the dispute on an empirical, however, not abstractly objective level. Our effort targets the experience of presence of both the building, and the inhabitant, as a basis for a better understanding of the place fundamental to regionalism. It is coherent with Peter Zumthor’s lectures, who assumes it to be an integral part of his design practice. Can we refine critical regionalism’s provisions? We need to turn to the experimental reality in order to provide an authentic basis for the architecture of renewing identity. It is also required that we broaden the application of Frampton’s ontological principals to match them with Mircea Eliade’s or Titus Burckhardt’s explanatory studies offering non-western approaches to architectural perception. Hungary may contribute to both the reinterpretation of the ‘foreign’ theory of critical regionalism, and the creation of a new identity in Europe’s regional palette. The critical aspects of the artistic approaches and the relevant analysis of some new buildings completing the historical complex of the Benedictine Archabbey of Pannonhalma may play a lead role in fulfilling these missions as well.

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The spatial dimension of liturgy

Historical and contemporary accounts of communio-space in Europe’s Latin rite liturgical architecture

Építés - Építészettudomány
Author: Vilmos Katona

The present study focuses on the spatial aspect of the liturgy, the raison d’être of church building. The topicality of this approach is explained either by the manner of international communication about sacred architecture, or by the work of German architect Rudolf Schwarz (1897–1961), who is cited anew, very often due to his unification of architectural praxis, scientific activity and a life of a devoted man deservedly still influential in the field. A church can be understood by its operative function. Throughout the most important liturgical reform movements of the 20th century, one can get an insight into the spatial concepts of the designers, which, consciously or not, reflect the achievements of these movements even today.

In the contemporary praxis of Latin Rite liturgy, the divorce between the once close-knit aspects of the worship are palpable, thanks to these reforms on the one hand, and their late interpretations on the other. Inspired by autonomous readings, the sacrificial act of the Eucharist (sacrificium) and the symbol of the communal feast (cena) were associated with correspondent models of space. This problem shares root with the frequent contraposition of personal devotion and the communio: the former prevails in oriented spaces, while the latter appears in the central. Spatial concepts capable of respecting both religious devotion and the needs of the community in their primordial unity and theological profoundness, seldom can be found today. Following the terminology of Albert Gerhards and Walter Zahner, these are often referred to as communio-spaces (Communio-Räume). Albeit the proposition of this space type is clearly theoretical, it looks back to important antecedents from the 20th century, and defines a multiplicity of new directions. The story of communio-space spans from Rudolf Schwarz to the contemporary church architecture of Central and Western Europe as well as North America, and still influences the newest designs of liturgical spaces. In Hungary, this recent issue of spatial arrangement is not a question of a substantial debate up to now, yet even this limited number of experiments necessitate the idea and applied examples of communio-space to acquire more attention here as well.

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