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Intellectuals and (following them) also common people remember their distant origin. Cultural memory institutions maintain references to factual and historical past, and it looks back also to mythical origins, or connections with old (since then have often been extinguished) peoples. Virgil heroificated the Trojan origin of Rome. The identity of France embraces also the Celtic Gauls, the German Franks, and the local ancestors, speaking Romance languages. Moscow heralded herself as “third Rome” (Byzantium being the “second Rome”). There are many particular forms of the so called “cultural memory”: in pointing towards the glorious or unjustly lost ancestors.Hungary is another — not neglectful — clear case of constant searching for “intermediate” forefathers. Since the Middle Ages Hungarians have been connected (both from outside or inside of the country) with the Huns, and the country’s tragic history in 15th–17th centuries was compared with that of Israel, already depicted in the Old Testament. Historians of the 18th and 19th centuries, interested in Hungary, tried to prove the “oriental” (Persian, Aryan, Turanian, etc.) bases of Hungarian language and culture. My historical report ends by the end of the 19th century, but the same tendency is actual in our days too. I call that as “proxy cultural memory” — presenting one’s own culture through a “creative reference” to different and other (old) cultures. The “proxy identity” is not constructing one’s actual identity, but it aims to invent a constructed image about something else. It has two main characteristics: it covers the times from which we do not know proper historical facts — and it is a part of ideology. As such it serves the “nation’s characterology”, ethnic stereotypes and imagology as well.

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Sémiologie de la représentatíon

André Helbo Ed.: Bruxelles, 1975. Edition Complexe, 195 p. Creusets — collection dirigée par André Helbo

Neohelicon
Author: Vilmos Voigt
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Esthonian prosody

Jaak, Poldmäe. Monography. Tallin. 1978. “Eesti Raamat” 287 pages

Neohelicon
Author: Vilmos Voigt
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A Brief Account of More than Two Hundred Years of Teaching

Folklore and Ethnography (Including Cultural Anthropology) at Hungarian Universities

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Vilmos Voigt

Higher education, including “universities”, began in Hungary at the beginning of the 14th century. That system was disrupted by the Ottoman invasion in the first half of the 16th century. The present university system was launched by founding of a Jesuit university in Nagyszombat (1635), which later became the royal, then the state university of Hungary, and today is the Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest. There from about 1784 we can register teaching activity, which we understand today as directed towards folklore, ethnography, and later even towards cultural anthropology. From 1872 the “second” Hungarian state university was opened in Kolozsvár, which fled from there at the end of the First World War (and operated in Szeged from 1921 on), came back for some years during the Second World War, and was divided after the war again. By 1910 other state universities were created in Hungary, which work today in Debrecen and Pécs. Ethnography and folklore are now regularly represented there, in Debrecen from 1949 on, in Pécs from 1989 on. (But, of course, with some anteceding activities.) In Szeged the first professorship in ethnography (practically in folklore) was established in 1929, and after many years of interruption today there is a university institution of ethnography, folklore and cultural anthropology. A university chair for visual anthropology exists at the Miskolc university from 1982 on. At the recent ecclesiastical universities in Hungary there is no regular teaching on those topics. The report gives a brief history of the university institutions, focusing on their major directions, professors and chairmen including also references to university teaching of the other chairs close to folklore, ethnography and ethnology (cultural anthropology), as e.g. (physical) anthropology, geography, archaeology, Finno-Ugric studies, Oriental studies etc. The bibliographic references include the recent publications, with indications of other publications. Because the paper is the very first one of its kind, it could not be exhaustive or complete. The universities outside of Hungary (e.g. Cluj/ Napoca, Novi Sad, Bucureºti), where today we find programs on Hungarian folklore and ethnography, were not specially described in this paper. From the careful studies of research history in Hungary it is clear that at Hungarian universities - in the modern sense of the word - the teaching of folklore has about a 220 years old tradition. (See the facts about Dániel Cornides.) For “ethnology” (i.e. traditional cultures of the peoples around the world) we can refer to lectures from about 1873 (by János Hunfalvy). It was Antal Herrmann, from about 1898 (first in Kolozsvár, then in Szeged), who gave special university lectures on ethnography and folklore. Sándor Solymossy was the first appointed university teacher of “ethnology” (in fact of folklore) in Hungary (special lecturer in Budapest, professor at Szeged university 1929-1934). The full university institution of Hungarian ethnography and folklore was created in 1934 at the Budapest university, under the leadership of professor István Györffy. Today there is regular university teaching of folklore and ethnography in Budapest, Debrecen, Szeged and Pécs (to some extent in Miskolc too). Cultural anthropology (ethnology) has its university programs in Budapest and Miskolc (and to some extent it is represented at other universities too).

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