At the northeastern part of Transdanubia, connected to the karst-water system of the Gerecse Mts, travertine pools were formed in several localities, at different times and at various altitudes. Quarrying of the travertine is documented since the Bronze Age. The hand-operated quarries are known to have also functioned during the Middle Ages. Several relics of architecture and sculpture from the Roman province of Pannonia and Medieval Hungary were made of this material, specifically from the quarries of the study area. Exploitation of the limestone opened the large, vertically-walled pools preserving the settlements of Paleolithic people in the loose sediments and the travertine cover: at Vértesszõlõs, remains of Homo erectus, and at Tata, habitations of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis were found in the travertine. Collaboration between geoscientists and archeologists could, apart from identifying the sources of worked travertine, also result in the discovery of new archeological sites.
A felsőpaleolitikum utolsó húszezer esztendejében a gravetti kultúrkörbe tartozó, ám különböző eszközkészítő hagyományokkal, kulturális kapcsolatokkal rendelkező közösségek népesítették be a Kárpát-medence belső területeit. Az időszak élővilágának és az élettelen környezetnek az alakulása a természettudományos adatokból aprólékosan rekonstruálható, a történeti folyamatok gerince a C14 adatsor. A tanulmány a 2002. végéig hozzáférhető radiokarbon adatokat gyűjtötte össze.
The time slot for Middle and Late Upper Palaeolithic (MUP, LUP) in Hungary is filled in by two large cultural phyla of the Gravettian entity, notably the blade-dominated and the pebble-dominated industries, extending through three chronological horizons. The Epigravettian cultures following the Last Glacial Maximum are not only temporal successors of the “Golden Age” in an etymological sense but can also be conceived as late, slightly impoverished descendants of the Pavlovian Culture. The Ságvárian Culture is partly contemporary with this blade-based Epigravettian, and successfully adapted to the same ecological conditions of the Late Würm. This industry is characterised by the pebble-working tradition, which latently survived since the Lower Palaeolithic.
Localities belonging to this entity are classified, on the basis of the priority principle, into the Ságvárian culture. The viable, strong culture existed in the interior parts of the Carpathian Basin around the last cold maximum of the Würm. The type spectrum of the tool kit fits well into the Gravettian mosaic although it is characterised by different parameters.
Its direct antecedents, time and place of its formation, the limits of extension and after-life are so far unknown. The eponymous site of the culture is Ságvár-Lyukasdomb, serving also for the stratotype of the Ságvár geochronological period.
Authors:András Markó, Alfréd Dulai, and Viola Dobosi
During the excavations of the Upper Palaeolithic site at Mogyorósbánya several non-utilitarian artefacts were found. Beside the earlier published piece of fossil resin (amber) and lumps of red ochre, more than one hundred Palaeogene and Neogene fossil molluscs, large foraminifers, corals and trace fossils from at least three different geological formations, as well as numerous fragments of phyllite were documented.
Pebbles of this soft shale were most probably collected from the alluvium of the Danube river. The majority of the pieces show clear traces of scraping and along the periphery of the largest artefact rhythmic incisions are visible. Even if this piece is not a ready-made object, it can be compared to the limestone and sandstone pebbles found on the Epigravettian site of Pilismarót-Pálrét. Another interesting artefact of unknown function is a carefully shaped but strongly fragmented piece with sharp edge.
Fossils of the Eocene Epoch were easily accessible in the region of Mogyorósbánya, while the nearest fossiliferous outcrops of the Oligocene and Pannonian sediments are found 15–17 km in south-eastern direction from the site.
Few gastropod shells show unambiguous traces of human modification. Typically, among the 16 Melanopsis fossils found in a single square meter only three pieces were manufactured. On the other hand, the majority of the Dentalium and worm tube fragments were cut and their surfaces show intense rounding and shine.
The not modified Nummulites, corals and large internal casts of gastropods were most probably collected by Prehistoric humans because of their unusual form. This interesting group of the Mogyorósbánya artefacts and are compared to the fossils published from the Pilisszántó I rockshelter and to the not modified fossils from Moravia and Romania.