Authors:Junliang Tian, Chen-Lin Chou, and W. Ehmann
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of 31 major and trace elements in 32 samples from the Xinji Loess Section, Shaanxi Province, China. Interferences, including those from uranium fission products, were evaluated and corrections applied where necessary. The 39.7-meter deep section comprises of Lishi Loess of the middle Pleistocene (Q2) and Malan Loess of the late Pleistocene (Q3). The section is characterized by the presence of 5 layers of paleosol, and each paleosol is underlain by a precipitation layer. When the elemental abundances are converted to a carbonate-free basis, there is little compositional difference among the carbonate-free fractions of loess, paleosol and precipitation layers. This indicates that dissolution of carbonate minerals by downward-moving surface water was an important process in paleosol formation while other minerals were not severely weathered and elemental fractionation was minimal. The parent materials of the paleosol and precipitation layers closely resemble the loess layers in their elemental abundances, which suggests that all layers in the section have a compositionally similar source.
Authors:X. Chen, W. Feng, W. Miao, Y. Shen, and Y. Yu
Power-time curves and metabolic properties of Tetrahymena thermophila BF5 exposed to different Yb3+ levels were studied by ampoule method of isothermal calorimetry at 28°C. Metabolic rate (r) decreased significantly while peak time (PT) increased with the increase of Yb3+. These results were mainly due to the inhibition of cell growth, which corresponded to the decrease of cell number obtained
by cell counting. Compared with cell counting, calorimetry was sensible, easy to use and convenient for monitoring the toxic
effects of Yb3+ on cells and freshwater ecosystem. It was also found that cell membrane fluidity decreased significantly under the effects
of Yb3+, which indicated that Yb3+ could be membrane active molecules with its effect on cell membranes as fundamental aspect of
Authors:C. Chung, C. Chen, C. Lin, W. Yeh, and C. Lee
Rapid, in situ measurements were used for quantitative monitoring of gaseous fission products around the nuclear power stations
in Taiwan. A portable high-resolution germanium detector with portable multichannel analyzer was used in the field monitoring
work. The detecting unit was calibrated using activated Ar, Kr, and Xe isotopes dispersed in a large chamber to obtain absolute
efficiency curve in terms of γ-counts per m3 versus gamma-ray energy. The calibrated detecting unit was brought to the nuclear power plants for in situ monitoring for
both normal operation and nuclear accidental exercise. In a typical four-hour measurement, the detection limits for most Kr
and Xe fission product isotopes were 0.0028%≈0.98% of the derived air concentration (DAC) imposed by the local authority.
The dose rate caused by gaseous radioisotopes released from nuclear power stations and dispersed to the surroundings can be
quantitatively monitored in a short period using this portable unit.
Authors:I. Moon, R. Androsch, W. Chen, and B. Wunderlich
A newly developed Micro-Thermal Analyzer affords images based on thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and permits localized thermal analyses on samples of a square micrometer area by combining the imaging ability of the atomic force microscope and the thermal characterization ability of temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Since thermal penetration depth depends on frequency, one can obtain depth profiles of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by varying the modulation frequency. Also, the analyzer can be used to characterize phase-transition temperatures, such as glass and melting transitions, of small sample regions with a precision of about ±3 K. Heating rates can be varied between 1 and 1500 K min–1. Modulation frequencies can be applied in the range from 2 to 100 kHz. We applied this new type of instrument to characterize microscopic thermal and structural properties of various polymer systems. The operation principles of the instrument are described, application examples are presented, and the future of the technique is discussed.
In our invention, FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) dry gas could be used to react with benzene without any special purification, and more than 90% ethylene was converted to ethylbenzene. The phenomenon of carbon deposition over catalyst surface was obvious and leads to a deactivation of catalyst, so it is important to study the behavior of carbon deposition of catalyst during alkylation of benzene. The influence of several factors such as temperature, reaction time, reactant concentration of the amount and the kinetics of carbon deposition were investigated, during which carbon depositing rate equations were obtained for different reactant.
Authors:L. Chen, W. Song, J. Lv, L. Wang, and C. Xie
Aluminum (Al) nanopowders with mean diameter of about 50 nm and passivated by alumina (Al2O3) coatings were prepared by an evaporation route: laser heating evaporation. Thermal properties of the nanopowders were investigated
by simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) in dry oxygen environment, using a series of heating
rates (5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 90°C min−1) from room temperature to 1200°C. With the heating rates rise, the onset and peak temperatures of the oxidation rise, and
the conversion degree of Al to Al2O3 varies. However, the specific heat release keeps relatively invariant and has an average value of 18.1 kJ g−1. So the specific heat release is the intrinsic characteristic of Al nanopowders, which can represent the ability of energy
Cyclic neutron activation analysis method was conducted for determination of Se in food samples. High accuracy and good precision
were proved by analyzing certified reference materials (CRMs) of chicken (GBW10018), rice (GBW10010) and cabbage (GBW10014).
The detection limits for the three CRMs reached 0.16, 0.66 and 1.2 ng after 6 cycles at the 161.9 keV γ-peak from 77mSe, under a neutron flux of 9.0 × 1011 n cm−2 s−1 and the conditions of 30 s irradiation, 2 s decay, 30 s counting and 2 s waiting, significantly lower than those of conventional
neutron activation analysis without any cycles, which were 0.94, 3.6 and 4.3 ng, respectively.
This paper presents calorimeter measurement for the thermal decomposition of n-propyl nitrate (NPN), isopropyl nitrate (IPN) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). Similar experimental results of triethylene
glycol dinitrate (tri-EGDN) and tetraethylene glycol dinitrate (tetra-EGDN) are included for comparison. The potential energy
surfaces (PESs) along O-NO2 bond stretch are investigated using the DFT (B3P86, B3PW91 and B3LYP), ab initio Hartree-Fock and PM3 methods. The good coincidence
of experimental with theoretical results indicates that initial stage in the thermal decomposition of five nitrates is only
unimolecular homolytical dissociation of the O-NO2 bonds and the activation energies of thermolysis by DSC correspond to the energies of O-NO2 bond scission of nitrates.
Authors:W. Huang, Y. Xu, X. Chen, X. Gao, and Y. Fu
The radiation effect of γ-ray on polyether-urethane foam was studied. The gas products from irradiated samples were analyzed
quantitatively and qualitatively by gas chromatography, the thermal property and radical intensity were determined by differential
thermal gravimetry and electron spin resonance. The dynamic mechanical property, compression and tensile properties were analyzed.
Positron annihilation lifetime of irradiated samples was also measured at room temperature in vacuum. The results show that
the general mechanical properties of ETPU sample irradiated by γ-rays at a dose of 8.0·105 Gy is excellent, but there are considerable gas products and a great deal of radicals created, which indicates that the sample
has been damaged by radiation. Relatively, the thermal stability of the sample remained fine.