Humic substances (HSs) occur throughout the ecosphere in soils, waters and underground systems. The strong complexation of HSs is of importance in the migration of radionuclies in geological media. Renewed interest in stability constants of complexes of radioelements and radionuclides with humic and fulvic acids has been generated by problems associated with the nuclide migration in the environment. Use of the ion exchange method for the determination of conditional stability constants of metal-HS complexes was examined and reviewed. The complexation of HS to metal ions cannot be described in rigorous mathematical terms because of the ill-defined nature of HSs in contrast with the complexation of single ligands. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of Schubert's and, Ardakani-Stevenson's, curve fitting methods were discussed. The great stabilities of HS complexes to rare earths (Yb(III), Tb(III), Eu(III), Gd(III)), americium(III), cobalt(II), uranyl(VI) and thorium(IV) were revealed.
A micellar high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been described for simultaneous determination of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and methylephedrine in Ephedra Herb and two traditional Chinese preparations. The separation and determination of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and methylephedrine were performed using a mobile phase containing 1.75 × 10−1 mol·L−1 sodium dodecyl sulphate and 0.02 mol·L−1 potassium hydrogen phosphate with 10% (v/v) methanol at pH 3.0, running at 1.5 mL·min−1 by a Venusil XBP C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at 40 °C. The detected wavelength was set at 210 nm. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines. The main analytical parameters were linearity (r > 0.9990), intra- and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation [RSD %], 0.33–1.63, and RSD %, 1.26–2.20, respectively), limit of quantifications [LOQs], and limit of detections [LODs] (2.6 × 10−4 and 7.8 × 10−5 mg·mL−1 for ephedrine, 6.8 × 10−4 and 2.0 × 10−4 mg·mL−1 for pseudoephedrine, and 5.0 × 10−4 and 1.5 × 10−4 mg·mL−1 for methylephedrine). RSDs of recoveries were <5.5% in the three samples. Based on the optimized chromatographic conditions and the eluted orders, a model of separation mechanism for the analytes was established. The results indicated that the proposed method was an accurate, “green” and cheap method.
Authors:W.Y. Gao, Y.W. Wang, L.M. Dong, and Z.W. Yu1
A microcalorimeter (Setaram c-80) was used
to study the thermokinetics of the hydration process of calcium phosphate
cement (CPC), a biocompatible biomaterial used in bone repair. The hydration
enthalpy was determined to be 35.8 J g–1
at 37.0°C when up to 80 mg CPC was dissolved in 2 mL of citric buffer.
In the present study, parameters related to time constants of the calorimeter
were obtained by fitting the recorded thermal curves with the function θ=Ae–?t(1– e–?2t).
The real thermogenetic curves were then retrieved with Tian function and the
transformation rate of the hydration process of CPC was found to follow the
The microstructures of the hydrated CPC were examined by scanning electron
microscopy. The nano-scale flake microstructures are due to crystallization
of calcium phosphate and they could contribute to the good biocompatibility
and high bioactivity.
Authors:W. Dong, W. Li, H. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. You, C. Zhou, J. Du, and Z. Tao
The stability constants for tracer concentrations of Co(II) complexes with the red earth fulvic acid were determined at pH
3.8–6.8 and ionic strength 0.0010–1.0 mol/l by using the cation exchange equilibrium method and the radiotracer60Co. The effects of ionic strength and pH on the stability constants of 1∶1 Co(II) complexes were investigated, and it was
found that the stability constants of complexes of humic substances do not vary with ionic strength and pH in a manner similar
to that of simple complexes.
Authors:J. Du, W. Li, H. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. You, C. Zhou, W. Dong, and Z. Tao
The stability constants for tracer concentrations of Co(II) complexes with both the red earth humic and fulvic acids were
determined at pH 5.9 and ionic strength 0.010 mol/l by using theArdakani-Stevenson cation exchange equilibrium method and the radiotracer60Co. It was found that the 1:1 complexes of Co(II) with the red earth humic and fulvic acids were formed and that the average
values of logβ (stability constant) of humic and fulvic acid complexes were 5.76±0.19 and 4.42±0.03, respectively.
Authors:X.K. Wang, W.M. Dong, H.X. Zhang, and Z.Y. Tao
The distribution coefficients,Kd of 36 elements from Na to Bi on a silica were determined at pH 4, 7, 9 and in the absence and presence of fulvic acid (FA) using a multitracer technique. The multitracer solution was prepared by irradiation of Th(NO3)4 with 40Ar ion beam. The effects of pH and fulvic acid on the Kd values of 36 elements were studied. It was found that the sequences of the Kd values of alkali elements (Cs>Rb>K>Na) and of alkaline earth elements(Ba>Ca>Mg) in the absence of FA can be qualitatively explained in terms of chemical bond formation and hydration. Various effects of pH and the negative or positive effect of FA on the adsorption of 36 elements were observed and are probably related to the species of 36 elements in the aqueous solutions containing CO32–, OH–, Cl– and FA. For most of the elements studied here the Kd values are increased with increasing pH and are decreased with adding FA.
Authors:W. Dong, X. Wang, J. Du, X. Bian, F. Ma, and Z. Tao
The batch method and the column method were simultaneously employed to study the sorption and desorption of Eu(III) on red
earth as a function of pH (4.6–6), the presence of a well-characterized fulvic acid (FA) and the iron oxides content of red
earth. The results from both methods were consistent qualitatively. The Eu(III) sorption showed significant dependences on
pH and FA, the sorption was increased with increasing pH and by addition of FA to the solutions, while the iron oxides content
of the red earth had a negative contribution to the sorption of Eu(III). Additionally, the sorption-desorption hysteresis
of Eu(III) on red earth occurred at a pH range of 4.6–6. Therefore, the humic substance and high pH have a great tendency
to immobilize Eu(III) on red earth.
Authors:Hanxu Li, Xiang-Zhong Shen, B. Sisk, W. Orndorff, Dong Li, Wei-Ping Pan, and J. Riley
Improved thermoanalytical methods have been developed that are capable of quantitative identification of various components
of fly ash from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustion system. The thermogravimetric procedure developed can determine
quantities of H2O, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4 and carbonaceous matter in fly ash with accuracy comparable to more time-consuming ASTM methods. This procedure is a modification
of the Mikhail-Turcotte methods that can accurately analyze bed ash, with higher accuracy regarding the greater amount of
carbonaceous matter in fly ash. In addition, in conjunction with FTIR and SEM/EDS analyses, the reduction mechanism of CaSO4 as CaSO4+4H2 ↔ CaS + 4H2O has been confirmed in this study. This mechanism is important in analyzing and evaluating sulfur capture in fluidized-bed
Authors:I-Hua Chen, Chao-Ying Chen, Amir H. Pakpour, Mark D. Griffiths, Chung-Ying Lin, Xu-Dong Li, and Hector W. H. Tsang
Background and aims
Due to the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), policies based on the nature of “spatial distancing” have been implemented and have resulted in school suspensions and online learning among schoolchildren. In order to examine the impact of such policies on schoolchildren, the aims of the present study were to (i) assess changes in the level of engagement in three internet-related activities (smartphone use, social media use, and gaming) before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, including prolonged and problematic engagement in these activities; (ii) investigate the differences of psychological distress before and after COVID-19 outbreak; and (iii) to use structural equation modeling to investigate the mediating roles of problematic internet-related behaviors in the causal relationships of psychological distress and time spent on internet-related activities.
Self-report measures were used to assess internet-related activities and psychological distress. Time spent on internet-related activities, problematic use of internet-related activities, and psychological distress were collected from primary school students (N = 535; 265 boys; M age = 10.32 years [SD = 0.84]). The data were first collected before the COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., early November 2019) and then collected again during the school suspension due to COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., end of March 2020) for comparisons of changes.
Schoolchildren spent significantly more time on the smartphone (increased 1.02 h daily; P < 0.001) and social media (increased 0.73 h daily; P < 0.001) but not gaming (increased 0.14 h daily; P = 0.07) during the school suspension compared to the baseline. Schoolchildren who increased by 15 or 30 min daily on internet-related activities showed an increased level of psychological distress. The association between problematic use of social media and psychological distress was stronger during the school suspension (β = 0.584) than at the baseline (β = 0.451; P < 0.001).
Increased problematic use of internet-related activities among schoolchildren was associated with greater psychological distress. Parents should therefore monitor internet-related activities and psychological distress of their children to support their mental health.