Authors:X. Feng, S. Feng, C. Fan, W. Zhang, and K. Quan
Over 100 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln of Jiangxi Province, China and their body samples were analyzed by INAA.
The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of
Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc., were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used
to identify the manufacturing age indirectly. The analytical data were further processed by principal components analysis
(PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2)
Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties.
A simple method for simultaneous determination of inorganic and total mercury contents in human hair by neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been developed. The method is based on the selective extraction of methylmercury from hair by hydrochloric acid. Thus, the residual phase containing inorganic mercury can be determined by NAA. Further, the methylmercury contents in hair samples are easily calculated by subtracting the inorganic mercury contribution from the total Hg simultaneously given by INAA. Several reference materials of human hair, including IAEA hair RM 085 and 086, Chinese hair RMs GBW 09101 and 07601, were analyzed by this method. Our results show that the method is reliable.
Authors:W. Ding, Q. Qian, X. Hou, W. Feng, and Z. Chai
The content of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Our results show that the extracted relative amounts and concentrations of DNA, RNA and proteins have no significant difference for two types of yeast, but the chromium content in DNA, RNA and proteins fractions extracted from the chromium-rich yeast are substantially higher than those from the normal. In addition, the concentration of chromium in DNA is much higher than that in RNA and proteins. It is evident that the inorganic chromium compounds can enter the yeast cell during the yeast cultivation in the chromium-containing culture medium and are converted into organic chromium species, which are combined with DNA, RNA and proteins.
Chromium speciation was investigated in the liver cytosol, serum and urine of normal and diabetic rats after a single intravenous injection of enriched stable isotope 50Cr tracer solution. Sephadex G-25 gel chromatography combined with instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to isolate and characterize protein-bound chromium in the above materials. The results indicate that Cr is mainly combined with a high-molecular-weight protein either in liver cytosol or serum. A low-molecular-weight, Cr-containing compound (LMWCr) was found in all the observed liver, serum and urine samples of both normal and diabetic rats. Chromium is excreted chiefly as LMWCr in urine.
In order to study the metabolism of physiological amounts of51Cr (10 μg/100 g of body wt.) intragastrically administered in rats, the activable enriched stable isotope Cr-50 compound Cr2O3 was used as a tracer. The absorption and distribution of51Cr(III) in rats with time were studied. Significant51Cr contents were found in all the organs and tissues of interest. The kidney, liver and bone contain higher amounts of51Cr than others. The fact that specific activities of51Cr are notably high in kidney, bone, spleen and pancreas and decrease gradually with time suggests that there are tighter
binding of chromium in these organs. The excretion of51Cr at various time intervals was also studied. Almost totally intragastrically administered dose was excreted in the feces.
The increased urinary excretion of51Cr with time indicates that the urine-chromium is the metabolic derivative of organism. In view of the tissues distribution
and excretion, it can be concluded that no more that 1% of the dose was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Authors:X. Chen, W. Feng, W. Miao, Y. Shen, and Y. Yu
Power-time curves and metabolic properties of Tetrahymena thermophila BF5 exposed to different Yb3+ levels were studied by ampoule method of isothermal calorimetry at 28°C. Metabolic rate (r) decreased significantly while peak time (PT) increased with the increase of Yb3+. These results were mainly due to the inhibition of cell growth, which corresponded to the decrease of cell number obtained
by cell counting. Compared with cell counting, calorimetry was sensible, easy to use and convenient for monitoring the toxic
effects of Yb3+ on cells and freshwater ecosystem. It was also found that cell membrane fluidity decreased significantly under the effects
of Yb3+, which indicated that Yb3+ could be membrane active molecules with its effect on cell membranes as fundamental aspect of
Twenty-seven pairs of head hair from mothers and their new-born infants were collected at the time of delivery in a hospital in Beijing. The total mercury content in the hair samples was determined by INAA. The correlation between mercury content in hair of mothers and their new-born infants has been investigated. In addition, the change of Hg content in pregnant women's hair during their pregnancy was also studied by INAA and SRXRF. The results indicate a significant positive correlation between the mercury content in maternal and infant head hairs (r=+0.862, p<0.001). The average content of Hg in infant and maternal hairs was 0.66±0.31 g/g and 0.59±0.25 g/g, respectively. The infant level exceeded the maternal by 12%. The Hg content in maternal head hair gradually reduced during pregnancy. Further, the methylmercury (Me–Hg) content in 3 maternal hair samples was analyzed by GC(EC). The Me–Hg was in accordance with the total mercury content. Thus a conclusion can be drawn that damage to the infant from Hg occurred in the early stages of pregnancy.
Authors:X. Chen, W. Feng, W. Miao, Y. Yu, Y. Shen, C. Wan, and J. Peng
The power-time curves of Tetrahymena thermophila exposed to tributyltin (TBT) were detected by microcalorimetry. Metabolic rate (r) decreased significantly while peak time
(PT) increased with the enhancement of TBT level. Compared with the measured multibiomarker including catalase, lactate dehydrogenase,
glutathione S-transferase, ATPase and membrane fluidity, PT and r could be sensitive biomarkers for assessing TBT toxicity at cellular level. The effective concentrations obtained by them
were consistent to those obtained by the protozoan community toxicity test. As a result, the microcalorimetric assay of T. thermophila had a great potential in assessing TBT acute toxicity and monitoring TBT pollution in the freshwater ecosystem.
Authors:F. Zhang, W. Feng, J. Shi, M. Wang, Y. Huang, W. He, and Z. Chai
The damage in the pup rat brain with low-level mercury exposure, and the concentration variation of trace elements in the
rat hippocampus was determined by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF). Meanwhile, the levels and activities
of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA)
in the hippocampus were also measured. The results showed that the low dose of inorganic mercury prenatal and postnatal exposure
could lead to the significant increase of both copper and zinc contents and remarkable decrease of iron content in pup rat
brain. Compared to the control group, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as GSH-Px, SOD, the contents of GSH and MDA
in the pup rat hippocampus of mercury-exposed group fell down obviously.
Authors:Z. Chai, Q. Qian, X. Feng, P. Zhang, N. Liu, W. Feng, M. Kuang, H. Wang, and Y. Zhang
The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken