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Abstract  

A procedure first described by O. Hahn in 1935 has been adapted to the measurement of the probability of escape of radon and thoron//the emanation fraction/ in soils and rocks through application of the germanium counter. Measurement of the regrowth of the214Pb, Bi,212Pb, Bi and208Tl following emanation loss permits the simultaneous determination of the two emanation fractions.

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Abstract  

The half-life of207Bi has been redetermined as 32.7±0.8 years. A new set of gamma-ray abundances are aslo calculated.

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Abstract  

A226 Ra source of known disintegration rate has been measured to determine the absolute -ray emission intensities of members of its decay chain in radioactive equilibrium. The results are compared with other values from the literature.

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Abstract  

A232Th source of knowsn disintegration rate and in secular equilibrium was measured to determine the absolute -ray emission intensities of members of its decay chain. Similar measurements were made on sources of highly-enriched235U and of normal uranium metal. The results are compared with values from the literature.

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Thermal analysis and degradation kinetics of thermoplastics

I. Staybelite Resin and its derivative Staybelite ester 10

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
J. W. Lin
and
W. Y. Wen

The thermal mechanical properties and degradation kinetics of Staybelite Resin, a thermoplastic, and its ester derivative Staybelite Ester 10 have been investigated using thermoanalytic methods. The thermogravimetric analyzer applied in the degradation studies has been interfaced with a minicomputer for data acquisition. The degradation kinetics of each thermosplastic have been satisfactorily attributed to an associated first-order process using a differential method.

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Abstract  

A new Compton suppression system was established. A low energy HPGe detector (LO-AX) is used as the analyzing detector. It is completely shielded by a 50%n-type HPGe and two NaI(TI) detectors. Experiments show that a substantial Compton suppression effect is also achieved in the low energy region down to 15 keV. The capability of applying this system in INAA was evaluated for 13 elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U and Zn) in biological and environmental samples. The benefits and problems of using this Compton suppression spectrometer in INAA are examined for each element.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of 31 major and trace elements in 32 samples from the Xinji Loess Section, Shaanxi Province, China. Interferences, including those from uranium fission products, were evaluated and corrections applied where necessary. The 39.7-meter deep section comprises of Lishi Loess of the middle Pleistocene (Q2) and Malan Loess of the late Pleistocene (Q3). The section is characterized by the presence of 5 layers of paleosol, and each paleosol is underlain by a precipitation layer. When the elemental abundances are converted to a carbonate-free basis, there is little compositional difference among the carbonate-free fractions of loess, paleosol and precipitation layers. This indicates that dissolution of carbonate minerals by downward-moving surface water was an important process in paleosol formation while other minerals were not severely weathered and elemental fractionation was minimal. The parent materials of the paleosol and precipitation layers closely resemble the loess layers in their elemental abundances, which suggests that all layers in the section have a compositionally similar source.

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Abstract  

The polymerization mechanisms of styrene and various derivatives by α-methylstyrene (AMS) and trans-β-methylstyrene (TBMS) were evaluated. Experiments were carried out for dimerization identification and thermal polymerization estimation by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal activity monitor (TAM) and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results show that, under temperature ranges of 60–190 and 50–170°C, AMS and TBMS performed dimerization by benzene ring and ethylene double bond, respectively. AMS and TBMS would form unsaturated dimers, saturated dimers and trimers, etc., during the period of thermal polymerization. Through this study, one can estimate possible intermediates of the polymerization process for the monomer of interest in the petrochemical industry.

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Abstract  

Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) is classified as a flammable hazard in NFPA 43B. Fires or explosions induced by thermal hazards ascribed to the unstable hydroperoxyl or peroxyl groups are often reported. This sequence studies is aimed at the decomposition phenomena associated with the reactive and incompatible characteristics of CHP mixed with alkaline solutions. Various alkalines were used for comparing the relative impact of bases and effects on concentrations. Exothermic onset temperatures and heats of decomposition of these incompatible mixtures were performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Comparisons of exothermic onset temperature, peak power, heat of decomposition, etc., were assessed to verify the severity of incompatible hazards in these systems. When mixed with a small amount of the hydroxides (in the production or storage of CHP), CHP will be more labile or unstable because of lower exothermic temperature. In addition, to elucidate the final products and propose mechanisms of the reaction of CHP mixed with alkaline solution, the analytical results were carried out by GC/MS and IR. The exhibited reactivity was complicated and significantly affected by the alkaline solutions. The reaction schemes have been proposed in this study. These results are especially important in process safety design for producing CHP and its related compounds, such as phenol, α-cumyl alcohol (CA), acetophenone (AP), and dicumyl peroxide (DCPO).

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Abstract  

The highly reactive and unstable exothermal features of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) have led to a large number of thermal explosions and runaway reaction accidents in the manufacturing process. To evaluate the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) of MEKPO in various storage vessels, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). The thermokinetic parameters were, in turn, used to calculate the SADT from theoretical equations based on the Semenov model. This study aimed at the SADT prediction value of various storage vessels in Taiwan compared with the UN 25 kg package and UN 0.51 L Dewar vessel. An important index, such as SADT, temperature of no return (T NR) and adiabatic time maximum rate (TMRad), was necessary and useful to ensure safe storage or transportation for self-reactive substances in the process industries.

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